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Schemas

Data sources like streams and tables have an associated schema. This schema defines the columns available in the data, just like a the columns in a traditional SQL database table.

Key vs Value columns

KsqlDB supports both key and value columns. These map to the data held in the keys and values of the underlying Kafka topic message.

A column is defined by a combination of its name, its SQL data type, and possibly a namespace.

Key columns have a KEY or PRIMARY KEY suffix for streams and tables, respectively. ksqlDB currently only supports a single key column.

Value columns have no namespace suffix. There can be one or more value columns amd the value columns can have any name.

For example, the following declares a schema with a single key column and several value columns:

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ID BIGINT, STRING NAME, ADDRESS ADDRESS_TYPE

Valid Identifiers

Column and field names must be valid identifiers.

Unquoted identifiers will be treated as upper-case, for example col0 is equivalent to COL0, and must contain only alpha-numeric and underscore characters.

Identifiers containing invalid character, or where case needs to be preserved, can be quoted using back-tick quotes, for example `col0`.

SQL data types

The following SQL types are supported by ksqlDB:

Primitive types

Supported primitive types are:

  • BOOLEAN: a binary value
  • INT: 32-bit signed integer
  • BIGINT: 64-bit signed integer
  • DOUBLE: double precision (64-bit) IEEE 754 floating-point number
  • STRING: a unicode character sequence (UTF8)

Decimal type

The DECIMAL type can store numbers with a very large number of digits and perform calculations exactly. It is recommended for storing monetary amounts and other quantities where exactness is required. However, arithmetic on decimals is slow compared to integer and floating point types.

DECIMAL types have a precision and scale. The scale is the number of digits in the fractional part, to the right of the decimal point. The precision is the total number of significant digits in the whole number, that is, the number of digits on both sides of the decimal point. For example, the number 765.937500 has a precision of 9 and a scale of 6.

To declare a column of type DECIMAL use the syntax:

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DECIMAL(precision, scale)

The precision must be positive, the scale zero or positive.

Array type

The ARRAY type defines a variable-length array of elements. All elements in the array must be of the same type.

To declare an ARRAY use the syntax:

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ARRAY<element-type>

The element-type of an another SQL data type.

For example, the following creates an array of STRINGs:

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ARRAY<STRING>

Instances of an array can be created using the syntax:

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ARRAY[value [, value]*]

For example, the following creates an array with three INT elements:

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ARRAY[2, 4, 6]

Map type

The MAP type defines a variable-length collection of key-value pairs. All keys in the map must be of the same type. All values in the map must be of the same type.

To declare a MAP use the syntax:

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MAP<key-type, element-type>

The key-type must currently be STRING while the value-type can an any other SQL data type.

For example, the following creates a map with STRING keys and values:

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MAP<STRING, STRING>

Instances of a map can be created using the syntax:

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MAP(key := value [, key := value]*)

For example, the following creates a map with three key-value pairs:

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MAP('a' := 1, 'b' := 2, 'c' := 3)

Struct type

The STRUCT type defines a list of named fields, where each field can have any SQL data type.

To declare a STRUCT use the syntax:

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STRUCT<field-name field-type [, field-name field-type]*>

The field-name can be any valid identifier. The field-type can be any valid SQL data type.

For example, the following creates a struct with an INT field called FOO and a BOOLEAN field call BAR:

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STRUCT<FOO INT, BAR BOOLEAN>

Instances of a struct can be created using the syntax:

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STRUCT(field-name := field-value [, field-name := field-value]*)

For example, the following creates a struct with fields called FOO and BAR and sets their values to 10 and true, respectively:

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STRUCT('FOO' := 10, 'BAR' := true)

Custom types

KsqlDB supports custom types using the CREATE TYPE statements. See the CREATE TYPE docs for more information.


Last update: 2020-06-23