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Materialized Views

In any database, one of the main purposes of a table is to enable efficient queries over the data. ksqlDB stores events immutably in Apache Kafka® by using a simple key/value model. But how can queries be made efficient under this model? The answer is by leveraging materialized views.

Stream/Table Duality

Streams and tables are closely related. A stream is a sequence of events that you can derive a table from. For example, a sequence of credit scores for a loan applicant can change over time. The sequence of credit scores is a stream. But this stream can be interpreted as a table to describe the applicant's current credit score.

Conversely, the table that represents current credit scores is really two things: the current credit scores, and also the sequence of changes to the credit scores for each applicant. This is a profound realization, and much has been written on this stream/table duality. For more information, see Streams and Tables: Two Sides of the Same Coin.

Traditional databases have redo logs, but subscribing to changes can be cumbersome. Redo logs have much shorter retention than the Kafka changelog topic. A fully compacted Kafka changelog topic is the same as a database snapshot. Efficient queries evaluate just the changes.

Materialized Views

The benefit of a materialized view is that it evaluates a query on the changes only (the delta), instead of evaluating the query on the entire table.

When a new event is integrated, the current state of the view evolves into a new state. This transition happens by applying the aggregation function that defines the view with the current state and the new event. When a new event is integrated, the aggregation function that defines the view is applied only on this new event, leading to a new state for the view. In this way, a view is never "fully recomputed" when new events arrive. Instead, the view adjusts incrementally to account for the new information, which means that queries against materialized views are highly efficient.

In ksqlDB, a table can be materialized into a view or not. If a table is created directly on top of a Kafka topic, it's not materialized. Non-materialized tables can't be queried, because they would be highly inefficient. On the other hand, if a table is derived from another collection, ksqlDB materializes its results, and you can make queries against it.

ksqlDB leverages the idea of stream/table duality by storing both components of each table. The current state of a table is stored locally and ephemerally on a specific server by using RocksDB. The series of changes that are applied to a table is stored durably in a Kafka topic and is replicated across Kafka brokers. If a ksqlDB server with a materialization of a table fails, a new server rematerializes the table from the Kafka changelog.

Last update: 2020-04-20