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SQL quick reference

For detailed descriptions of ksqlDB SQL statements and keywords, see the ksqlDB API reference.

For details on SQL syntax, see ksqlDB syntax reference.

ADVANCE BY

Specify the duration of a "hop" in a HOPPING window. For more information, see Time and Windows in ksqlDB.

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SELECT [...], aggregate_function
  WINDOW HOPPING (SIZE <time_span> <time_units>, ADVANCE BY <time_span> <time_units>) [...]

ALTER property

Change a property value.

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ALTER 'auto.offset.reset'='earliest';

ALTER STREAM

Add new columns to a stream. This is not supported for streams defined using queries (CREATE STREAM ... AS).

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ALTER STREAM stream_name
  ADD [COLUMN] column_name data_type
  ADD [COLUMN] ... ...
  ...

ALTER TABLE

Add new columns to a table. This is not supported for tables defined using queries (CREATE TABLE ... AS)

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ALTER TABLE stream_name
  ADD [COLUMN] column_name data_type
  ADD [COLUMN] ... ...
  ...

AND / OR

Logical AND/OR operators in a WHERE clause. For more information, see SELECT.

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SELECT column_name(s)
  FROM stream_name | table_name
  WHERE condition          
    AND|OR condition

AS

Alias a column, expression, or type. For more information, see Create a table.

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SELECT column_name AS column_alias
  FROM stream_name | table_name

ASSERT

Assert values, stream, table, or tombstones.

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ASSERT NULL VALUES sourceName (columns)? KEY values            

BETWEEN

Constrain a value to a specified range in a WHERE clause.

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WHERE expression [NOT] BETWEEN start_expression AND end_expression;            

The BETWEEN operator is used to indicate that a certain value must be within a specified range, including boundaries. ksqlDB supports any expression that resolves to a numeric or string value for comparison.

The following push query uses the BETWEEN clause to select only records that have an event_id between 10 and 20.

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SELECT event
  FROM events
  WHERE event_id BETWEEN 10 AND 20
  EMIT CHANGES;

CASE

Select a condition from one or more expressions.

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SELECT
  CASE
    WHEN condition THEN result
    [ WHEN  THEN  ]
    
    [ WHEN  THEN  ]
    [ ELSE result ]
  END
FROM stream_name | table_name;

ksqlDB supports a searched form of CASE expression. In this form, CASE evaluates each boolean condition in WHEN clauses, from left to right. If a condition is true, CASE returns the corresponding result. If none of the conditions is true, CASE returns the result from the ELSE clause. If none of the conditions is true and there is no ELSE clause, CASE returns null.

The schema for all results must be the same, otherwise ksqlDB rejects the statement.

The following example push query uses a CASE expression.

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SELECT
 CASE
   WHEN orderunits < 2.0 THEN 'small'
   WHEN orderunits < 4.0 THEN 'medium'
   ELSE 'large'
 END AS case_result
FROM orders
EMIT CHANGES;

See CASE in action

CAST

Change the type of an expression to a different type.

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CAST (expression AS data_type);

You can cast an expression's type to a new type by using CAST.

The following example query converts a numerical count, which is a BIGINT, into a suffixed string, which is a VARCHAR. For example, the integer 5 becomes 5_HELLO.

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SELECT page_id, CONCAT(CAST(COUNT(*) AS VARCHAR), '_HELLO')
  FROM pageviews_enriched
  WINDOW TUMBLING (SIZE 20 SECONDS)
  GROUP BY page_id;

CREATE CONNECTOR

Create a new connector in the Kafka Connect cluster. For more information, see CREATE CONNECTOR.

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CREATE SOURCE | SINK CONNECTOR connector_name
  WITH( property_name = expression [, ...]);

CREATE STREAM

Register a stream on a Kafka topic. For more information, see CREATE STREAM.

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CREATE STREAM stream_name ( { column_name data_type [KEY] } [, ...] 
  WITH ( property_name = expression [, ...] );            

CREATE STREAM AS SELECT

Create a new materialized stream and corresponding Kafka topic, and stream the result of the query into the topic. For more information, see CREATE STREAM AS SELECT.

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CREATE STREAM stream_name
  [WITH ( property_name = expression [, ...] )]
  AS SELECT  select_expr [, ...]
  FROM from_stream
  [[ LEFT | FULL | INNER ]
    JOIN [join_table | join_stream]
      [WITHIN [<size> <timeunit> | (<before_size> <timeunit>, <after_size> <timeunit>)] [GRACE PERIOD <grace_size> <timeunit>]]
    ON join_criteria]*
  [ WHERE condition ]
  [PARTITION BY new_key_expr [, ...]]
  EMIT CHANGES;

CREATE TABLE

Register a stream on a Kafka topic. For more information, see CREATE TABLE.

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CREATE TABLE table_name ( { column_name data_type (PRIMARY KEY) } [, ...] )
  WITH ( property_name = expression [, ...] );

CREATE TABLE AS SELECT

Create a new materialized table and corresponding Kafka topic, and stream the result of the query as a changelog into the topic. For more information, see CREATE TABLE AS SELECT.

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CREATE TABLE table_name
  [WITH ( property_name = expression [, ...] )]
  AS SELECT  select_expr [, ...]
  FROM from_stream | from_table
  [[ LEFT | FULL | INNER ] JOIN [join_table | join_stream] ON join_criteria]* 
  [ WINDOW window_expression ]
  [ WHERE condition ]
  [ GROUP BY grouping_expression ]
  [ HAVING having_expression ]
  EMIT CHANGES;

CREATE TYPE

Alias a complex type declaration. For more information, see CREATE TYPE.

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CREATE TYPE <type_name> AS <type>;

DEFINE

Defines a variable. For more information, see DEFINE.

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DEFINE <name> = '<value>';

DESCRIBE

List columns in a stream or table along with their data types and other attributes. For more information, see DESCRIBE.

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DESCRIBE [EXTENDED] (stream_name | table_name);

DESCRIBE CONNECTOR

List details about a connector. For more information, see DESCRIBE CONNECTOR.

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DESCRIBE CONNECTOR connector_name;

DESCRIBE FUNCTION

List details about a function, including input parameters and return type. For more information, see DESCRIBE FUNCTION.

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DESCRIBE FUNCTION function_name;

DROP CONNECTOR

Delete a connector from the Connect cluster. For more information, see DROP CONNECTOR.

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DROP CONNECTOR connector_name;

DROP STREAM

Drop an existing stream and optionally mark the stream's source topic for deletion. For more information, see DROP STREAM.

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DROP STREAM [IF EXISTS] stream_name [DELETE TOPIC];

DROP TABLE

Drop an existing table and optionally mark the table's source topic for deletion. For more information, see DROP TABLE.

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DROP TABLE [IF EXISTS] table_name [DELETE TOPIC];

DROP TYPE

Remove a type alias from ksqlDB. For more information, see DROP TYPE.

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DROP TYPE [IF EXISTS] <type_name> AS <type>;

EMIT CHANGES

Specify a push query with a continuous output refinement in a SELECT statement. For more information, see Push Queries.

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CREATE STREAM stream_name
  AS SELECT  select_expr [, ...]
  FROM from_stream
  EMIT CHANGES;

EXPLAIN

Show the execution plan for a SQL expression or running query. For more information, see EXPLAIN.

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EXPLAIN (sql_expression | query_id);

FULL JOIN

Select all records when there is a match in the left stream/table or the right stream/table records. Equivalent to FULL OUTER JOIN. For more information, see Join streams and tables.

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SELECT column_name(s)
  FROM stream_name1 | table_name1
   FULL JOIN stream_name2 | table_name2
   ON <stream_name1|table_name1>.column_name=<stream_name2|table_name2>.column_name

GRACE PERIOD

Allow events to be accepted for a time period after a window ends. For more information, see Out-of-order events

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SELECT orderzip_code, TOPK(order_total, 5) FROM orders
  WINDOW TUMBLING (SIZE 1 HOUR, GRACE PERIOD 2 HOURS) 
  GROUP BY order_zipcode
  EMIT CHANGES;

GROUP BY

Group records in a window. Required by the WINDOW clause. Windowing queries must group by the keys that are selected in the query. For more information, see Time and Windows in ksqlDB.

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SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)
  FROM table_name
  WHERE column_name operator value
  GROUP BY column_name

HAVING

Extract records from an aggregation that fulfill a specified condition.

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SELECT column_name, aggregate_function(column_name)
  FROM table_name
  WHERE column_name operator value
  GROUP BY column_name
  HAVING aggregate_function(column_name) operator value

Populate a column with the Kafka record's last header that matches the key.

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CREATE STREAM S (column_name BYTES HEADER('key'))
WITH (kafka_topic='s', format='json');

HEADERS

Populate a column with the full list of the Kafka record's headers.

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CREATE STREAM S (column_name ARRAY<STRUCT<key STRING, value BYTES>> HEADERS)
WITH (kafka_topic='s', format='json');

HOPPING

Group input records into fixed-sized, possibly overlapping windows, based on the timestamps of the records. For more information, see HOPPING.

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SELECT WINDOWSTART, WINDOWEND, aggregate_function
  FROM from_stream
  WINDOW HOPPING window_expression
  EMIT CHANGES;

IF EXISTS

Test whether a stream or table is present in ksqlDB.

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DROP STREAM [IF EXISTS] stream_name [DELETE TOPIC];
DROP TABLE  [IF EXISTS] table_name  [DELETE TOPIC];

IN

Specifies multiple OR conditions.

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  SELECT select_expr [, ...]
    FROM from_stream | from_table
    WHERE exp IN (exp0, exp1, exp2);

The above is equivalent to:

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  SELECT select_expr [, ...]
    FROM from_stream | from_table
    WHERE exp = exp0 OR exp = exp1 OR exp = exp2;

INNER JOIN

Select records in a stream or table that have matching values in another stream or table. For more information, see Join streams and tables.

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SELECT column_name(s)
  FROM stream_name1 | table_name1
   INNER JOIN stream_name2 | table_name2
   ON <stream_name1|table_name1>.column_name=<stream_name2|table_name2>.column_name

INSERT INTO

Stream the result of a SELECT query into an existing stream and its underlying Kafka topic. For more information, see INSERT INTO.

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INSERT INTO stream_name
  SELECT select_expr [, ...]
  FROM from_stream
  [ LEFT | FULL | INNER ]
      JOIN [join_table | join_stream]
        [WITHIN [<size> <timeunit> | (<before_size> <timeunit>, <after_size> <timeunit>)] [GRACE PERIOD <grace_size> <timeunit>]]
      ON join_criteria
  [ WHERE condition ]
  [ PARTITION BY new_key_expr [, ...] ]
  EMIT CHANGES;

INSERT VALUES

Produce a row into an existing stream or table and its underlying Kafka topic based on explicitly specified values. For more information, see INSERT VALUES.

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INSERT INTO stream_name|table_name [(column_name [, ...]])]
  VALUES (value [,...]);

LEFT JOIN

Select all records from the left stream/table and the matched records from the right stream/table. For more information, see Join streams and tables.

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SELECT column_name(s)
  FROM stream_name1 | table_name1
   LEFT JOIN stream_name2 | table_name2
   ON <stream_name1|table_name1>.column_name=<stream_name2|table_name2>.column_name

LIKE

Match a string with the specified pattern.

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  SELECT select_expr [, ...]
    FROM from_stream | from_table
    WHERE exp LIKE pattern_string;

The LIKE operator is used for prefix or suffix matching. ksqlDB supports the % wildcard, which represents zero or more characters.

The following push query uses the % wildcard to match any user_id that starts with "santa".

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SELECT user_id
  FROM users
  WHERE user_id LIKE 'santa%'
  EMIT CHANGES;

PARTITION BY

Repartition a stream. For more information, see Partition Data to Enable Joins.

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CREATE STREAM stream_name
  WITH ([...,]
        PARTITIONS=number_of_partitions)
  AS SELECT select_expr [, ...]
  FROM from_stream
  PARTITION BY new_key_expr [, ...]
  EMIT CHANGES;

PRINT

Print the contents of Kafka topics to the ksqlDB CLI. For more information, see PRINT.

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PRINT topicName [FROM BEGINNING] [INTERVAL interval] [LIMIT limit]

RIGHT JOIN

Select all records from the right stream/table and the matched records from the left stream/table. For more information, see Join streams and tables.

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SELECT column_name(s)
  FROM stream_name1 | table_name1
   RIGHT JOIN stream_name2 | table_name2
   ON <stream_name1|table_name1>.column_name=<stream_name2|table_name2>.column_name

RUN SCRIPT

Execute predefined queries and commands from a file. For more information, see RUN SCRIPT.

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RUN SCRIPT <path-to-query-file>;

SELECT (Pull Query)

Pull the current value from a materialized table and terminate. For more information, see SELECT (Pull Query).

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SELECT select_expr [, ...]
  FROM from_item
  [ WHERE where_condition ]
  [ AND window_bounds ]
  [ LIMIT count ];

SELECT (Push Query)

Push a continuous stream of updates to a stream or table. For more information, see SELECT (Push Query).

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SELECT select_expr [, ...]
  FROM from_item
  [[ LEFT | FULL | INNER ]
      JOIN join_item
        [WITHIN [<size> <timeunit> | (<before_size> <timeunit>, <after_size> <timeunit>)] [GRACE PERIOD <grace_size> <timeunit>]]
      ON join_criteria]*
  [ WINDOW window_expression ]
  [ WHERE condition ]
  [ GROUP BY grouping_expression [, ...] ]
  [ HAVING having_expression ]
  EMIT CHANGES
  [ LIMIT count ];

SESSION

Group input records into a session window. For more information, see SELECT (Push Query).

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SELECT WINDOWSTART, WINDOWEND, aggregate_function
  FROM from_stream
  WINDOW SESSION window_expression
  EMIT CHANGES;

SET property

Assign a property value.

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SET 'auto.offset.reset'='earliest';

SHOW CONNECTORS

List all connectors in the Connect cluster. For more information, see SHOW CONNECTORS.

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SHOW | LIST CONNECTORS;

SHOW FUNCTIONS

List available scalar and aggregate functions available. For more information, see SHOW FUNCTIONS.

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SHOW | LIST FUNCTIONS;

SHOW PROPERTIES

List the configuration settings that are currently in effect. For more information, see SHOW PROPERTIES.

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SHOW PROPERTIES;

SHOW QUERIES

List queries that are currently running in the cluster. For more information, see SHOW QUERIES.

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SHOW | LIST QUERIES [EXTENDED];

SHOW STREAMS

List the currently defined streams. For more information, see SHOW STREAMS.

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SHOW | LIST STREAMS [EXTENDED];

SHOW TABLES

List the currently defined tables. For more information, see SHOW TABLES.

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SHOW | LIST TABLES [EXTENDED];

SHOW TOPICS

List the available topics in the Kafka cluster that ksqlDB is configured to connect to. For more information, see SHOW TOPICS.

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SHOW | LIST [ALL] TOPICS [EXTENDED];

SHOW TYPES

List all custom types and their type definitions. For more information, see SHOW TYPES.

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SHOW | LIST TYPES;

SHOW VARIABLES

List all defined variables.

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SHOW VARIABLES;

SIZE

Specify the duration of a HOPPING or TUMBLING window. For more information, see Time and Windows in ksqlDB.

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SELECT WINDOWSTART, WINDOWEND, aggregate_function
  FROM from_stream
  WINDOW TUMBLING (SIZE <time_span> <time_units>)
  EMIT CHANGES;

SPOOL

Store issued commands and their results in a file. For more information, see SPOOL.

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SPOOL <file_name|OFF>

TERMINATE

End a query. For more information, see TERMINATE.

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TERMINATE query_id;

TUMBLING

Group input records into fixed-sized, non-overlapping windows based on the timestamps of the records. For more information, see TUMBLING.

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SELECT WINDOWSTART, WINDOWEND, aggregate_function
  FROM from_stream
  WINDOW TUMBLING window_expression
  EMIT CHANGES;

UNDEFINE

Undefines a variable.

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UNDEFINE name;

UNSET property

Unassign a property value.

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UNSET 'auto.offset.reset';

WHERE

Extract records that fulfill a specified condition. For more information, see SELECT.

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SELECT column_name(s)
  FROM from_stream | from_table
  WHERE column_name operator value

WINDOW

Group input records that have the same key into a window, for operations like aggregations and joins. For more information, see WINDOW.

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SELECT WINDOWSTART, WINDOWEND, aggregate_function
  FROM from_stream
  WINDOW window_expression
  EMIT CHANGES;

WINDOWSTART / WINDOWEND

Specify the beginning and end bounds of a window. For more information, see WINDOW.

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SELECT WINDOWSTART, WINDOWEND, aggregate_function
  FROM from_stream
  WINDOW window_expression
  EMIT CHANGES;

NULLIF

Returns NULL if two expressions are equal, otherwise it returns the first expression.

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SELECT NULLIF(col1, col2) 
    FROM from_stream | from_table
    EMIT CHANGES;

Last update: 2022-06-02