SELECT (Push Query)¶
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Push a continuous stream of updates to the ksqlDB stream or table. The result of this statement isn't persisted in a Kafka topic and is printed out only in the console, or returned to the client. To stop a push query started in the CLI press Ctrl+C.
Execute a push query via the CLI or by sending an HTTP request to the ksqlDB REST API, and the API sends back a chunked response of indefinite length.
Push queries enable you to subscribe to changes, which enable reacting to new information in real-time. They’re a good fit for asynchronous application flows. For request/response flows, see Pull Queries.
Push queries can use all available SQL features, which can be useful when prototyping a persistent query or when running ad-hoc queries from the CLI. But unlike persistent queries,
push queries are not shared. If multiple clients submit the same push query, ksqlDB computes
independent results for each client.
If you're using push queries from an application, move all the heavy lifting into a persistent query and keep your push query as simple as possible.
In the previous statements,
from_item is one of the following:
stream_name [ alias ]
table_name [ alias ]
from_item LEFT JOIN from_item ON join_condition
The WHERE clause can refer to any column defined for a stream or table,
ROWTIME pseudo column.
The following statement shows how to select all records from a
stream that have timestamps between two values.
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When writing logical expressions using
ROWTIME, you can use ISO-8601
formatted date strings to represent date times. For example, the previous
query is equivalent to the following:
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If the datestring is inexact, the rest of the timestamp is assumed to be
padded with 0s. For example,
ROWTIME = '2019-07-30T11:00' is
ROWTIME = '2019-07-30T11:00:00.0000'.
You can specify time zones within the datestring. For example,
2017-11-17T04:53:45-0330 is in the Newfoundland time zone. If no
timezone is specified within the datestring, then timestamps are
interpreted in the UTC time zone.
You use the
LIMIT clause to limit the number of rows returned. Once the
limit is reached, the query terminates.
The following statement shows how to select five records from a
If no limit is supplied the query runs until terminated, streaming back all results to the console.
If you want to select older data, you can configure ksqlDB to query the stream from the beginning. You must run this configuration before running the query:
You can use the WINDOW clause only if the
from_item is a stream.
The WINDOW clause lets you control how to group input records that have the same key into so-called windows for operations like aggregations or joins. Windows are tracked per record key.
Windowing adds two additional system columns to the data, which provide
the window bounds:
ksqlDB supports the following WINDOW types:
TUMBLING: Tumbling windows group input records into fixed-sized, non-overlapping windows based on the records' timestamps. You must specify the window size for tumbling windows. Tumbling windows are a special case of hopping windows, where the window size is equal to the advance interval.
The following statement shows how to create a push query that has a tumbling window.
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HOPPING: Hopping windows group input records into fixed-sized, (possibly) overlapping windows based on the records' timestamps. You must specify the window size and the advance interval for hopping windows.
The following statement shows how to create a push query that has a hopping window.
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SESSION: Session windows group input records into so-called sessions. You must specify the session inactivity gap parameter for session windows. For example, imagine you set the inactivity gap to 5 minutes. If, for a given record key such as "alice", no new input data arrives for more than 5 minutes, then the current session for "alice" is closed, and any newly arriving data for "alice" in the future will mark the beginning of a new session.
The following statement shows how to create a push query that has a session window.
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You can cast an expression's type to a new type using CAST.
The following query converts a numerical count, which is a BIGINT, into a
suffixed string, which is a VARCHAR. For example, the integer
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ksqlDB supports a
searched form of CASE expression. In this form, CASE
evaluates each boolean
condition in WHEN clauses, from left to right.
If a condition is true, CASE returns the corresponding result. If none of
the conditions is true, CASE returns the result from the ELSE clause. If
none of the conditions is true and there is no ELSE clause, CASE returns null.
The schema for all results must be the same, otherwise ksqlDB rejects the statement.
The following push query uses a a CASE expression.
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The LIKE operator is used for prefix or suffix matching. ksqlDB supports
% wildcard, which represents zero or more characters.
The following push query uses the
% wildcard to match any
starts with "santa".
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The BETWEEN operator is used to indicate that a certain value must lie within a specified range, inclusive of boundaries. ksqlDB supports any expression that resolves to a numeric or string value for comparison.
The following push query uses the between clause to select only records
that have an
event_id between 10 and 20.
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