SELECT (Push Query)¶
SELECT select_expr [, ...] FROM from_item [ LEFT JOIN join_table ON join_criteria ] [ WINDOW window_expression ] [ WHERE condition ] [ GROUP BY grouping_expression ] [ HAVING having_expression ] EMIT CHANGES [ LIMIT count ];
Push a continuous stream of updates to the ksqlDB stream or table. The result of
this statement isn't persisted in a Kafka topic and is printed out only in
the console. To stop the continuous query in the CLI press Ctrl+C.
Note that the WINDOW clause can only be used if the
from_item is a
Push queries enable you to query a materialized view with a subscription to the results. Push queries emit refinements to materialized views, which enable reacting to new information in real-time. They’re a good fit for asynchronous application flows. For request/response flows, see Pull Queries.
Execute a push query by sending an HTTP request to the ksqlDB REST API, and the API sends back a chunked response of indefinite length.
In the previous statements,
from_item is one of the following:
stream_name [ alias ]
table_name [ alias ]
from_item LEFT JOIN from_item ON join_condition
The WHERE clause can refer to any column defined for a stream or table,
ROWKEY system columns.
The following statement shows how to select all records from a
stream that have timestamps between two values.
SELECT * FROM pageviews WHERE ROWTIME >= 1510923225000 AND ROWTIME <= 1510923228000 EMIT CHANGES;
When writing logical expressions using
ROWTIME, you can use ISO-8601
formatted date strings to represent date times. For example, the previous
query is equivalent to the following:
SELECT * FROM pageviews WHERE ROWTIME >= '2017-11-17T04:53:45' AND ROWTIME <= '2017-11-17T04:53:48' EMIT CHANGES;
If the datestring is inexact, the rest of the timestamp is assumed to be
padded with 0s. For example,
ROWTIME = '2019-07-30T11:00' is
ROWTIME = '2019-07-30T11:00:00.0000'.
You can specify time zones within the datestring. For example,
2017-11-17T04:53:45-0330 is in the Newfoundland time zone. If no
timezone is specified within the datestring, then timestamps are
interpreted in the UTC time zone.
You use the
LIMIT clause to limit the number of rows returned. Once the
limit is reached, the query terminates.
The following statement shows how to select five records from a
SELECT * FROM pageviews EMIT CHANGES LIMIT 5;
If no limit is supplied the query runs until terminated, streaming back all results to the console.
If you want to select older data, you can configure ksqlDB to query the stream from the beginning. You must run this configuration before running the query:
SET 'auto.offset.reset' = 'earliest';
The WINDOW clause lets you control how to group input records that have the same key into so-called windows for operations like aggregations or joins. Windows are tracked per record key.
Windowing adds two additional system columns to the data, which provide
the window bounds:
ksqlDB supports the following WINDOW types:
TUMBLING: Tumbling windows group input records into fixed-sized, non-overlapping windows based on the records' timestamps. You must specify the window size for tumbling windows. Tumbling windows are a special case of hopping windows, where the window size is equal to the advance interval.
The following statement shows how to create a push query that has a tumbling window.
SELECT windowstart, windowend, item_id, SUM(quantity) FROM orders WINDOW TUMBLING (SIZE 20 SECONDS) GROUP BY item_id EMIT CHANGES;
HOPPING: Hopping windows group input records into fixed-sized, (possibly) overlapping windows based on the records' timestamps. You must specify the window size and the advance interval for hopping windows.
The following statement shows how to create a push query that has a hopping window.
SELECT windowstart, windowend, item_id, SUM(quantity) FROM orders WINDOW HOPPING (SIZE 20 SECONDS, ADVANCE BY 5 SECONDS) GROUP BY item_id EMIT CHANGES;
SESSION: Session windows group input records into so-called sessions. You must specify the session inactivity gap parameter for session windows. For example, imagine you set the inactivity gap to 5 minutes. If, for a given record key such as "alice", no new input data arrives for more than 5 minutes, then the current session for "alice" is closed, and any newly arriving data for "alice" in the future will mark the beginning of a new session.
The following statement shows how to create a push query that has a session window.
SELECT windowstart, windowend, item_id, SUM(quantity) FROM orders WINDOW SESSION (20 SECONDS) GROUP BY item_id EMIT CHANGES;
Every output column of an expression in the SELECT list has an output
name. To specify the output name of a column, use
AS OUTPUT_NAME after
the expression definition. If it is omitted, ksqlDB will assign a system
i is the ordinal number of the
expression in the SELECT list. If the expression references a column of
from_item, then the output name is the name of that column.
ksqlDB throws an error for duplicate output names. For example:
SELECT 1, KSQL_COL_0 FROM orders EMIT CHANGES;
is not allowed, as the output name for the literal
CAST (expression AS data_type);
You can cast an expression's type to a new type using CAST.
The following query converts a numerical count, which is a BIGINT, into a
suffixed string, which is a VARCHAR. For example, the integer
SELECT page_id, CONCAT(CAST(COUNT(*) AS VARCHAR), '_HELLO') FROM pageviews_enriched WINDOW TUMBLING (SIZE 20 SECONDS) GROUP BY page_id;
CASE WHEN condition THEN result [ WHEN ... THEN ... ] … [ WHEN … THEN … ] [ ELSE result ] END
ksqlDB supports a
searched form of CASE expression. In this form, CASE
evaluates each boolean
condition in WHEN clauses, from left to right.
If a condition is true, CASE returns the corresponding result. If none of
the conditions is true, CASE returns the result from the ELSE clause. If
none of the conditions is true and there is no ELSE clause, CASE returns null.
The schema for all results must be the same, otherwise ksqlDB rejects the statement.
The following push query uses a a CASE expression.
SELECT CASE WHEN orderunits < 2.0 THEN 'small' WHEN orderunits < 4.0 THEN 'medium' ELSE 'large' END AS case_result FROM orders EMIT CHANGES;
column_name LIKE pattern;
The LIKE operator is used for prefix or suffix matching. ksqlDB supports
% wildcard, which represents zero or more characters.
The following push query uses the
% wildcard to match any
starts with "santa".
SELECT user_id FROM users WHERE user_id LIKE 'santa%' EMIT CHANGES;
WHERE expression [NOT] BETWEEN start_expression AND end_expression;
The BETWEEN operator is used to indicate that a certain value must lie within a specified range, inclusive of boundaries. ksqlDB supports any expression that resolves to a numeric or string value for comparison.
The following push query uses the between clause to select only records
that have an
event_id between 10 and 20.
SELECT event FROM events WHERE event_id BETWEEN 10 AND 20 EMIT CHANGES;