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Configure Security for ksqlDB

ksqlDB supports several combinations of encryption and authentication on its client-facing and internal endpoints. ksqlDB also supports many of the security features of the other services it communicates with, like Apache Kafka® and Schema Registry.

Securing ksqlDB for Confluent Cloud

You can use ksqlDB with a Kafka cluster in Confluent Cloud. For more information, see Connecting ksqlDB to Confluent Cloud.

Securing ksqlDB on premise

This section covers how to secure installations of ksqlDB outside of Confluent Cloud, like on-premises installations or manual installations on other cloud platforms.

To configure security for ksqlDB, add your configuration settings to the <path-to-confluent>/etc/ksqldb/ksql-server.properties file and then start the ksqlDB Server with your configuration file specified.

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<path-to-confluent>/bin/ksql-server-start <path-to-confluent>/etc/ksqldb/ksql-server.properties

Tip

These instructions assume you are installing Confluent Platform by using ZIP or TAR archives. For more information, see On-Premises Deployments.

The section is split into:

Securing ksqlDB installation: Covers how to secure access to ksqlDB itself and its own internal communication.

Securing communication with other services: Covers how to secure communication with other services and access to the resources they hold.

Securing ksqlDB installation

ksqlDB supports two main deployment modes:

Securing interactive deployments: Interactive deployments are those where the ksqlDB servers accept client connections.

Securing headless deployments: headless deployments are those where the ksqlDB servers do not accept client connections. They read the SQL statements they should run from a file on-disk.

Securing interactive deployments

Securing the interactive ksqlDB installation involves securing the HTTP endpoints that the ksqlDB server is listening on.

As well as accepting connections and requests from clients, a multi-node ksqlDB cluster also requires inter-node communications. You can choose to configure the external client and internal inter-node communication separately or over a single listener:

Securing single listener setup: Ideal for single-node installations, or where the inter-node communication is over the same network interfaces as client communication.

Securing dual listener setup: Useful where inter-node communication is over a different network interfaces or requires different authentication or encryption configuration.

Securing single-listener setup

Securing a single listener for ksqlDB is appropriate when both client and inter-node communication utilize the same authentication and security configuration.

The supported options include encrypting the connection and authenticating clients:

Configuring listener for SSL encryption: Creates an encrypted connection between the client and server, as well as for inter-node communication.

Configuring listener for HTTP-BASIC authentication: Uses a username and password for authenticating to ksqlDB.

Configuring Listener for SSL encryption

ksqlDB can be configured to use HTTPS rather than the default HTTP for all communication.

If you haven't already, you will need to create SSL key and trust stores.

Use the following settings to configure the ksqlDB server to use HTTPS:

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listeners=https://hostname:port
ssl.keystore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.server.keystore.jks
ssl.keystore.password=xxxx
ssl.key.password=yyyy

Note the use of the HTTPS protocol in the listeners config.

To enable the server to authenticate clients (2-way authentication), use the following additional settings:

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ssl.client.auth=true
ssl.truststore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.server.truststore.jks
ssl.truststore.password=zzzz

Additional settings are available for configuring ksqlDB for HTTPS. For example, if you need to restrict the default configuration for Jetty, there are settings like ssl.enabled.protocols. For more information, see Configuration Options for HTTPS.

Configure the CLI for HTTPS

If the ksqlDB server is configured to use HTTPS, CLI instances may need to be configured with suitable key and trust stores.

If the server's SSL certificate is not signed by a recognized public Certificate Authority, you must configure the CLI with a trust store that trusts the server's SSL certificate.

If you haven't already, create SSL key and trust stores.

Use the following settings to configure the CLI server:

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ssl.truststore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.client.truststore.jks
ssl.truststore.password=<secure-password>

If the server is performing client authentication (2-way authentication), use the following additional settings:

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ssl.keystore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.client.keystore.jks
ssl.keystore.password=xxxx
ssl.key.password=<another-secure-password>

Settings for the CLI can be stored in a suitable file and passed to the CLI by using the --config-file command-line arguments, for example:

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<ksql-install>bin/ksql --config-file ./config/ksql-cli.properties https://localhost:8088

Configuring listener for HTTP-BASIC Authentication

ksqlDB can be configured to require users to authenticate using a username and password via the Basic HTTP authentication mechanism.

Note

If you're using Basic authentication, we recommended that you configure ksqlDB to use HTTPS for secure communication, because the Basic protocol passes credentials in plain text.

Use the following settings to configure the ksqlDB server to require authentication:

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authentication.method=BASIC
authentication.roles=<user-role1>,<user-role2>,...
authentication.realm=<KsqlServer-Props-in-jaas_config.file>

The authentication.roles config defines a comma-separated list of user roles. To be authorized to use the ksqlDB Server, an authenticated user must belong to at least one of these roles.

For example, if you define admin, developer, user, and ksq-user roles, the following configuration assigns them for authentication.

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authentication.roles=admin,developer,user,ksq-user

The authentication.realm config must match a section within jaas_config.file, which defines how the server authenticates users.

An example jaas_config.file is:

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KsqlServer-Props {
  org.eclipse.jetty.jaas.spi.PropertyFileLoginModule required
  file="/path/to/password-file"
  debug="false";
};

In this example, the authentication.realm config should be set to KsqlServer-Props:

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authentication.realm=KsqlServer-Props

The example jaas_config.file above uses the Jetty PropertyFileLoginModule, which itself authenticates users by checking for their credentials in a password file.

You can also use other implementations of the standard Java LoginModule interface, such as JDBCLoginModule for reading credentials from a database or the LdapLoginModule.

The JAAS config file should be passed as a JVM option during server start, and the LoginModule implementation should provided to the server as well:

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export KSQL_OPTS=-Djava.security.auth.login.config=/path/to/the/jaas_config.file
export KSQL_CLASSPATH=<path-to-login-module-jar>/jetty-jaas-9.4.24.v20191120.jar
<path-to-confluent>/bin/ksql-server-start <path-to-confluent>/etc/ksqldb/ksql-server.properties

In the PropertyFileLoginModule example above, the file parameter is the location of the password file. The format is:

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<username>: <password-hash>[,<rolename> ...]

Here's an example:

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fred: OBF:1w8t1tvf1w261w8v1w1c1tvn1w8x,user,admin
harry: changeme,user,developer
tom: MD5:164c88b302622e17050af52c89945d44,user
dick: CRYPT:adpexzg3FUZAk,admin,ksq-user

The password hash for a user can be obtained by using the org.eclipse.jetty.util.security.Password utility, for example running:

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bin/ksql-run-class org.eclipse.jetty.util.security.Password fred letmein

Which results in an output similar to:

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letmein
OBF:1w8t1tvf1w261w8v1w1c1tvn1w8x
MD5:0d107d09f5bbe40cade3de5c71e9e9b7
CRYPT:frd5btY/mvXo6

Where each line of the output is the password encrypted using different mechanisms, starting with plain text.

Configure the CLI for Basic HTTP Authentication

If the ksqlDB Server is configured to use Basic authentication, you must configure CLI instances with suitable valid credentials. You can provide credentials when starting the CLI by using the --user and --password command-line arguments, for example:

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<ksql-install>bin/ksql --user fred --password letmein http://localhost:8088

Securing dual-listener setup

Using dual listeners for ksqlDB is appropriate when the client and inter-node communication utilize different authentication and security configurations. This is most likely the case when ksqlDB is deployed as an IaaS service.

The supported setups are SSL-mutual auth for the internal communication combined with SSL encryption and authentication for the external client:

Configuring internal for SSL-mutual authentication: Creates secure and authenticated connections for inter-node communication, but leaves the external client API unsecured. This is most appropriate when clients are trusted, but the internal APIs are protected from use.

Configuring internal for SSL-mutual authentication and external for SSL encryption: Creates secure and authenticated connections for inter-node communication and uses SSL for the external client API. This is most likely to be pair with authentication below.

Configuring internal for SSL-mutual authentication and external for HTTP-BASIC authentication: Creates secure and authenticated connections for inter-node communication and uses basic authentication for the external client API. This is most likely to be paired with SSL above.

Configuring internal for SSL-mutual authentication

ksqlDB supports securing inter-node communication using SSL mutual authentication.

For more information about configuring ksql.internal.listener, see Configuring Listeners of a ksqlDB Cluster.

Your key store must contain the key pair for your internal listener set with ksql.internal.listener. If your internal certificate is not signed by a recognized public Certificate Authority, a trust store is required to contain certificates for nodes in your cluster. Below is an example configuration:

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# Contains the internal key pair for this node.
# (e.g. key pair for node-1.internal.example.com)
ssl.keystore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.server.keystore.jks
ssl.keystore.password=xxxx
ssl.key.password=yyyy

# Contains the certificates for nodes in the cluster.
# (e.g. certs for node-1.internal.example.com, node-2.internal.example.com)
ssl.truststore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.server.truststore.jks
ssl.truststore.password=zzzz

listeners=http://0.0.0.0:8088
ksql.internal.listener=https://node-1.internal.example.com:8099

# This enables mutual auth checking for the internal listener
ksql.internal.ssl.client.authentication=REQUIRED

Configuring internal for SSL-mutual authentication and external for HTTP-BASIC authentication

Client-facing basic HTTP authentication can be used alongside authentication for the internal listener. This ensures that neither the client or internal APIs can be accessed by unauthorized users.

Note

If you're using Basic authentication, we recommended that you configure ksqlDB to use HTTPS for secure communication, because the Basic protocol passes credentials in plain text.

Below is an example configuration:

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ssl.keystore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.server.keystore.jks
ssl.keystore.password=xxxx
ssl.key.password=yyyy

ssl.truststore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.server.truststore.jks
ssl.truststore.password=zzzz

listeners=http://0.0.0.0:8088
ksql.internal.listener=https://node-1.internal.example.com:8099

ksql.internal.ssl.client.authentication=REQUIRED

authentication.method=BASIC
authentication.roles=admin,developer,user,ksq-user
authentication.realm=KsqlServer-Props

For more detail on basic authentication, see above.

Configuring internal for SSL-mutual authentication and external for SSL encryption

If you want to use HTTPS on listeners as well as use SSL mutual auth for internal communication on ksql.internal.listener, you will likely require two different key pairs, since your host's identity to clients may be different from its internal identity. To create such a key store, refer below.

In such a configuration, you must specify which key pair is used for a given listener by providing a key store alias. For example, if set, ksql.ssl.keystore.alias.internal will be used to find the key store entry with the given alias when setting up the internal listener. Similarly, ksql.ssl.keystore.alias.external is used for the client listener listeners. Below is an example configuration:

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# Contains the client certificate for this node under the alias 'client'.
# (e.g. key pair for external.example.com)
# Contains the internal certificate for this node under the alias 'internal_node1'.
# (e.g. key pair for node-1.internal.example.com)
ssl.keystore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.server.keystore.jks
ssl.keystore.password=xxxx
ssl.key.password=yyyy

# The aliases referenced above
ksql.ssl.keystore.alias.external=client
ksql.ssl.keystore.alias.internal=internal_node1

# Contains the certificates for nodes in the cluster.
# (e.g. certs for node-1.internal.example.com, node-2.internal.example.com)
ssl.truststore.location=/var/private/ssl/ksql.server.truststore.jks
ssl.truststore.password=zzzz

listeners=https://external.example.com:8088
ksql.internal.listener=https://node-1.internal.example.com:8099

# Enable mutual auth checking for the internal listener
ksql.internal.ssl.client.authentication=REQUIRED
# Don't require external clients to authenticate via SSL
ksql.ssl.client.authentication=NONE

Setting up a Key Store and Trust Store

In order to create a keystore with multiple key pairs with aliases, follow the below examples, depending on the source of the keys.

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# Generated key pairs with aliases 'client' and 'internal_node1'
keytool -genkey -alias client -keyalg RSA -keypass password -storepass password -keystore ksql.server.keystore.p12 -storetype PKCS12
keytool -genkey -alias internal_node1 -keyalg RSA -keypass password -storepass password -keystore ksql.server.keystore.p12 -storetype PKCS12

# Imported key pairs, with aliases 'client' and 'internal_node1'
keytool -importkeystore -deststorepass password -destkeystore ksql.server.keystore.p12 -deststoretype PKCS12 -destalias client -srckeystore client_api.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -srcalias client
keytool -importkeystore -deststorepass password -destkeystore ksql.server.keystore.p12 -deststoretype PKCS12 -destalias internal_node1 -srckeystore internal_node1.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -srcalias internal_node1

Also, extracting certificates to add to a trust store can be done with the following commands:

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keytool -export -alias internal_node1 -storepass password -file node1.cer -keystore internal_node1.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12
keytool -export -alias internal_node2 -storepass password -file node2.cer -keystore internal_node2.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12

keytool -import -v -trustcacerts -alias internal_node1 -file node1.cer -keystore ksql.server.truststore.jks -keypass password -storepass password
keytool -import -v -trustcacerts -alias internal_node1 -file node2.cer -keystore ksql.server.truststore.jks -keypass password -storepass password

Securing headless deployments

Unlike interactive deployments, there are no exposed REST APIs, so security is greatly simplified.

You may still have to secure communication with other services.

Securing communication with other services

This section covers how to secure communications of ksqlDB with other services.

The section is split into:

Configure ksqlDB for Confluent Control Center: Covers how to secure communication with Confluent Control Center.

Configure ksqlDB for Secured Confluent Schema Registry: Covers how to secure communication with schema registry.

Configure ksqlDB for Secured Apache Kafka clusters: Covers how to secure communication with Kafka.

Configure ksqlDB for Confluent Control Center

You can use ksqlDB with a Kafka cluster in Confluent Control Center. For more information, see Integrate ksqlDB with Confluent Control Center.

Configure ksqlDB for Secured Confluent Schema Registry

You can configure ksqlDB to connect to Schema Registry over HTTP by setting the ksql.schema.registry.url to the HTTPS endpoint of Schema Registry. Depending on your security setup, you might also need to supply additional SSL configuration. For example, a trustStore is required if the Schema Registry SSL certificates aren't trusted by the JVM by default. A keyStore is required if Schema Registry requires mutual authentication.

You can configure SSL for communication with Schema Registry by using non-prefixed names, like ssl.truststore.location, or prefixed names like ksql.schema.registry.ssl.truststore.location. Non-prefixed names are used for settings that are shared with other communication channels, where the same settings are required to configure SSL communication with both Kafka and Schema Registry. Prefixed names affect communication with Schema Registry only and override any non-prefixed settings of the same name.

Use the following to configure ksqlDB for communication with Schema Registry over HTTPS, where mutual authentication isn't required and Schema Registry SSL certificates are trusted by the JVM:

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ksql.schema.registry.url=https://<host-name-of-schema-registry>:<ssl-port>

Use the following settings to configure ksqlDB for communication with Schema Registry over HTTPS, with mutual authentication, with an explicit trustStore, and where the SSL configuration is shared between Kafka and Schema Registry:

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ksql.schema.registry.url=https://<host-name-of-schema-registry>:<ssl-port>
ksql.schema.registry.ssl.truststore.location=/etc/kafka/secrets/ksql.truststore.jks
ksql.schema.registry.ssl.truststore.password=<your-secure-password>
ksql.schema.registry.ssl.keystore.location=/etc/kafka/secrets/ksql.keystore.jks
ksql.schema.registry.ssl.keystore.password=<your-secure-password>
ksql.schema.registry.ssl.key.password=<your-secure-password>

Use the following settings to configure ksqlDB for communication with Schema Registry over HTTP, without mutual authentication and with an explicit trustStore. These settings explicitly configure only ksqlDB to Schema Registry SSL communication.

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ksql.schema.registry.url=https://<host-name-of-schema-registry>:<ssl-port>
ksql.schema.registry.ssl.truststore.location=/etc/kafka/secrets/sr.truststore.jks
ksql.schema.registry.ssl.truststore.password=<your-secure-password>

The exact settings will vary depending on the encryption and authentication mechanisms Schema Registry is using, and how your SSL certificates are signed.

You can pass authentication settings to the Schema Registry client used by ksqlDB by adding the following to your ksqlDB Server config.

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ksql.schema.registry.basic.auth.credentials.source=USER_INFO
ksql.schema.registry.basic.auth.user.info=username:password

For more information, see Schema Registry Security Overview.

Configure ksqlDB for Secured Apache Kafka clusters

The following are common configuration examples.

Configuring Kafka Encrypted Communication

This configuration enables ksqlDB to connect to a Kafka cluster over SSL, with a user supplied trust store:

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security.protocol=SSL
ssl.truststore.location=/etc/kafka/secrets/kafka.client.truststore.jks
ssl.truststore.password=confluent

The exact settings will vary depending on the security settings of the Kafka brokers, and how your SSL certificates are signed. For full details, and instructions on how to create suitable trust stores, please refer to the Security Guide.

Configure Kafka Authentication

This configuration enables ksqlDB to connect to a secure Kafka cluster using PLAIN SASL, where the SSL certificates have been signed by a CA trusted by the default JVM trust store.

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security.protocol=SASL_SSL
sasl.mechanism=PLAIN
sasl.jaas.config=\
    org.apache.kafka.common.security.plain.PlainLoginModule required \
    username="<ksql-user>" \
    password="<password>";

The exact settings will vary depending on what SASL mechanism your Kafka cluster is using and how your SSL certificates are signed. For more information, see the Security Guide.

Configure Authorization of ksqlDB with Kafka ACLs

Kafka clusters can use ACLs to control access to resources. Such clusters require each client to authenticate as a particular user. To work with such clusters, ksqlDB must be configured to authenticate with the Kafka cluster, and certain ACLs must be defined in the Kafka cluster to allow the user ksqlDB is authenticating as access to resources. The list of ACLs that must be defined depends on the version of the Kafka cluster.

Confluent Platform v5.0 (Apache Kafka v2.0) and above

Confluent Platform 5.0 simplifies the ACLs required to run ksqlDB against a Kafka cluster secured with ACLs, (see KIP-277 and KIP-290 for details). We strongly recommend using Confluent Platform 5.0 or above for deploying secure installations of Kafka and ksqlDB.

ACL definition

Kafka ACLs are defined in the general format of "Principal P is Allowed/Denied Operation O From Host H on any Resource R matching ResourcePattern RP".

Principal

An authenticated user or group. For example, "user: Fred" or "group: fraud".

Permission

Defines if the ACL allows (ALLOW) or denies (DENY) access to the resource.

Operation

The operation that is performed on the resource, for example READ.

Resource

A resource is comprised of a resource type and resource name:

  • RESOURCE_TYPE, for example TOPIC or consumer GROUP.
  • Resource name, for example the name of a topic or a consumer-group.
ResourcePattern

A resource pattern matches zero or more Resources and is comprised of a resource type, a resource name and a pattern type.

  • RESOURCE_TYPE, for example TOPIC or consumer GROUP. The pattern will only match resources of the same resource type.
  • Resource name. How the pattern uses the name to match Resources is dependant on the pattern type.
  • PATTERN_TYPE, controls how the pattern matches a Resource's name to the patterns. Valid values are:
    • LITERAL pattern types match the name of a resource exactly, or, in the case of the special wildcard resource name *, resources of any name.
    • PREFIXED pattern types match when the resource's name is prefixed with the pattern's name.

The CLUSTER resource type is implicitly a literal pattern with a constant name because it refers to the entire Kafka cluster.

The ACLs described below list a RESOURCE_TYPE, resource name, PATTERN_TYPE, and OPERATION. All ACLs described are ALLOW ACLs, where the principal is the user the ksqlDB Server has authenticated as, with the Apache Kafka cluster, or an appropriate group that includes the authenticated ksqlDB user.

Tip

For more information about ACLs, see Authorization using ACLs.

ACLs on Literal Resource Pattern

A literal resource pattern matches resources exactly. They are case-sensitive. For example ALLOW user Fred to READ the TOPIC with the LITERAL name users.

Here, user Fred would be allowed to read from the topic users only. Fred would not be allowed to read from similarly named topics such as user, users-europe, Users etc.

ACLs on Prefixed Resource Pattern

A prefixed resource pattern matches resources where the resource name starts with the pattern's name. They are case-sensitive. For example ALLOW user Bob to WRITE to any TOPIC whose name is PREFIXED with fraud-.

Here, user Bob would be allowed to write to any topic whose name starts with fraud-, for example fraud-us, fraud-testing and fraud-. Bob would not be allowed to write to topics such as production-fraud-europe, Fraud-us, etc.

Required ACLs

The ACLs required are the same for both Interactive and non-interactive (headless) ksqlDB clusters.

ksqlDB always requires the following ACLs for its internal operations and data management:

  • The DESCRIBE_CONFIGS operation on the CLUSTER resource type.
  • The ALL operation on all internal TOPICS that are PREFIXED with _confluent-ksql-<ksql.service.id>.
  • The ALL operation on all internal GROUPS that are PREFIXED with _confluent-ksql-<ksql.service.id>.

Where ksql.service.id can be configured in the ksqlDB configuration and defaults to default_.

If ksqlDB is configured to create a topic for the record processing log, which is the default configuration, the following ACLs are also needed:

  • The ALL operation on the TOPIC with LITERAL name <ksql.logging.processing.topic.name>.

Where ksql.logging.processing.topic.name can be configured in the ksqlDB configuration and defaults to <ksql.service.id>ksql_processing_log.

In addition to the general permissions above, ksqlDB also needs permissions to perform the actual processing of your data. Here, ksqlDB needs permissions to read data from your desired input topics and/or permissions to write data to your desired output topics:

  • The READ operation on any input topics.
  • The WRITE operation on any output topics.
  • The CREATE operation on any output topics that do not already exist.

Often output topics from one query form the inputs to others. ksqlDB will require READ and WRITE permissions for such topics.

The set of input and output topics that a ksqlDB cluster requires access to will depend on your use case and whether the ksqlDB cluster is configured in interactive or non-interactive mode.

Non-Interactive (headless) ksqlDB clusters

Non-interactive ksqlDB clusters run a known set of SQL statements, meaning the set of input and output topics is well defined. Add the ACLs required to allow ksqlDB access to these topics.

For example, given the following setup:

  • A 3-node ksqlDB cluster with ksqlDB servers running on IPs 198.51.100.0, 198.51.100.1, 198.51.100.2
  • Authenticating with the Kafka cluster as a KSQL1 user.
  • With ksql.service.id set to production_.
  • Running queries that read from input topics input-topic1 and input-topic2.
  • Writing to output topics output-topic1 and output-topic2.
  • Where output-topic1 is also used as an input for another query.

Then the following commands would create the necessary ACLs in the Kafka cluster to allow ksqlDB to operate:

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# Allow ksqlDB to discover the cluster:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation DescribeConfigs --cluster

# Allow ksqlDB to read the input topics (including output-topic1):
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation Read --topic input-topic1 --topic input-topic2 --topic output-topic1

# Allow ksqlDB to write to the output topics:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation Write --topic output-topic1 --topic output-topic2
# Or, if the output topics do not already exist, the 'create' operation is also required:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation Create --operation Write --topic output-topic1 --topic output-topic2

# Allow ksqlDB to manage its own internal topics and consumer groups:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation All --resource-pattern-type prefixed --topic _confluent-ksql-production_ --group _confluent-ksql-production_

# Allow ksqlDB to manage its record processing log topic, if configured:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation All --topic production_ksql_processing_log

Interactive ksqlDB clusters

Interactive ksqlDB clusters accept SQL statements from users and hence may require access to a wide variety of input and output topics. Add ACLs to appropriate literal and prefixed resource patterns to allow ksqlDB access to the input and output topics, as required.

Tip

To simplify ACL management, you should configure a default custom topic name prefix such as ksql-interactive- for your ksqlDB cluster via the ksql.output.topic.name.prefix server configuration setting. Unless a user defines an explicit topic name in a SQL statement, ksqlDB will then always prefix the name of any automatically created output topics. Then add an ACL to allow ALL operations on TOPICs that are PREFIXED with the configured custom name prefix (in the example above: ksql-interactive-).

For example, given the following setup:

  • A 3-node ksqlDB cluster with ksqlDB servers running on IPs 198.51.100.0, 198.51.100.1, 198.51.100.2
  • Authenticating with the Kafka cluster as a KSQL1 user.
  • With ksql.service.id set to fraud_.
  • Where users should be able to run queries against any input topics prefixed with accounts-, orders- and payments-.
  • Where ksql.output.topic.name.prefix is set to ksql-fraud-
  • And users won't use explicit topic names, i.e. users will rely on ksqlDB auto-creating any required topics with auto-generated names. (Note: If users want to use explicit topic names, then you must provide the necessary ACLs for these in addition to what's shown in the example below.)

Then the following commands would create the necessary ACLs in the Kafka cluster to allow ksqlDB to operate:

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# Allow ksqlDB to discover the cluster:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation DescribeConfigs --cluster

# Allow ksqlDB to read the input topics:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation Read --resource-pattern-type prefixed --topic accounts- --topic orders- --topic payments-

# Allow ksqlDB to manage output topics:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation All --resource-pattern-type prefixed --topic ksql-fraud-

# Allow ksqlDB to manage its own internal topics and consumer groups:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation All --resource-pattern-type prefixed --topic _confluent-ksql-fraud_ --group _confluent-ksql-fraud_

# Allow ksqlDB to manage its record processing log topic, if configured:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation All --topic fraud_ksql_processing_log

# Allow ksqlDB to produce to the command topic:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --producer --transactional-id ksql-fraud_ --topic _confluent-ksql-fraud__command_topic

The following table shows the necessary ACLs in the Kafka cluster to allow ksqlDB to operate in interactive mode.

Permission Operation Resource Name Type
ALLOW DESCRIBE CLUSTER kafka-cluster LITERAL
ALLOW DESCRIBE_CONFIGS CLUSTER kafka-cluster LITERAL
ALLOW CREATE TOPIC <ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW CREATE TOPIC _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW CREATE GROUP _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DESCRIBE TOPIC <ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DESCRIBE TOPIC _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DESCRIBE GROUP _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW ALTER TOPIC <ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW ALTER TOPIC _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW ALTER GROUP _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DESCRIBE_CONFIGS TOPIC <ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DESCRIBE_CONFIGS TOPIC _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DESCRIBE_CONFIGS GROUP _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW ALTER_CONFIGS TOPIC <ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW ALTER_CONFIGS TOPIC _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW ALTER_CONFIGS GROUP _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW READ TOPIC <ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW READ TOPIC _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW READ GROUP _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW WRITE TOPIC <ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW WRITE TOPIC _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW WRITE GROUP _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DELETE TOPIC <ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DELETE TOPIC _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DELETE GROUP _confluent-ksql-<ksql-service-id> PREFIXED
ALLOW DESCRIBE TOPIC * LITERAL
ALLOW DESCRIBE GROUP * LITERAL
ALLOW DESCRIBE_CONFIGS TOPIC * LITERAL
ALLOW DESCRIBE_CONFIGS GROUP * LITERAL
ALLOW DESCRIBE TRANSACTIONAL_ID <ksql-service-id> LITERAL
ALLOW WRITE TRANSACTIONAL_ID <ksql-service-id> LITERAL

Confluent Platform versions below v5.0 (Apache Kafka < v2.0)

Versions of the Confluent Platform below v5.0, (which use Apache Kafka versions below v2.0), do not benefit from the enhancements found in later versions of Kafka, which simplify the ACLs required to run ksqlDB against a Kafka cluster secured with ACLs. This means a much larger, or wider range, set of ACLs must be defined. The set of ACLs that must be defined depends on whether the ksqlDB cluster is configured for interactive or non-interactive (headless).

ACL definition

Kafka ACLs are defined in the general format of "Principal P is Allowed/Denied Operation O From Host H on Resource R".

Principal

An authenticated user or group. For example, "user: Fred" or "group: fraud".

Permission

Defines if the ACL allows (ALLOW) or denies (DENY) access to the resource.

Operation

The operation that is performed on the resource, for example READ.

Resource

A resource is comprised of a resource type and resource name:

  • RESOURCE_TYPE, for example TOPIC or consumer GROUP.
  • Resource name, where the name is either specific, for example users, or the wildcard *, meaning all resources of this type. The name is case-sensitive.

The CLUSTER resource type does not require a resource name because it refers to the entire Kafka cluster.

An example ACL might ALLOW user Jane to READ the TOPIC named users.

Here, user Jane would be allowed to read from the topic users only. Jane would not be allowed to read from similarly named topics such as user, users-europe, Users etc.

The ACLs described below list a RESOURCE_TYPE, resource name, and OPERATION. All ACLs described are ALLOW ACLs, where the principal is the user the ksqlDB server has authenticated as, with the Apache Kafka cluster, or an appropriate group that includes the authenticated ksqlDB user.

Tip

For more information about ACLs, see Authorization using ACLs.

Interactive ksqlDB clusters pre Kafka 2.0

Interactive ksqlDB clusters, (which is the default configuration), require that the authenticated ksqlDB user has open access to create, read, write, delete topics, and use any consumer group:

Interactive ksqlDB clusters require these ACLs:

  • The DESCRIBE_CONFIGS operation on the CLUSTER resource type.
  • The CREATE operation on the CLUSTER resource type.
  • The DESCRIBE, READ, WRITE and DELETE operations on all TOPIC resource types.
  • The DESCRIBE and READ operations on all GROUP resource types.

It's still possible to restrict the authenticated ksqlDB user from accessing specific resources using DENY ACLs. For example, you can add a DENY ACL to stop SQL queries from accessing a topic that contains sensitive data.

For example, given the following setup:

  • A 3-node ksqlDB cluster with ksqlDB servers running on IPs 198.51.100.0, 198.51.100.1, 198.51.100.2
  • Authenticating with the Kafka cluster as a 'KSQL1' user.

Then the following commands would create the necessary ACLs in the Kafka cluster to allow ksqlDB to operate:

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# Allow ksqlDB to discover the cluster and create topics:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation DescribeConfigs --operation Create --cluster

# Allow ksqlDB access to topics and consumer groups:
bin/kafka-acls --authorizer-properties zookeeper.connect=localhost:2181 --add --allow-principal User:KSQL1 --allow-host 198.51.100.0 --allow-host 198.51.100.1 --allow-host 198.51.100.2 --operation All --topic '*' --group '*'

Non-Interactive (headless) ksqlDB clusters pre Kafka 2.0

Because the list of queries are known ahead of time, you can run Non-interactive ksqlDB clusters with more restrictive ACLs. Determining the list of ACLs currently requires a bit of effort.

Standard ACLs

The authenticated ksqlDB user always requires:

  • DESCRIBE_CONFIGS permission on the CLUSTER resource type.
Input topics

An input topic is one that has been imported into ksqlDB using a CREATE STREAM or CREATE TABLE statement. The topic should already exist when ksqlDB is started.

The authenticated ksqlDB user requires DESCRIBE and READ permissions for each input topic.

Output topics

ksqlDB creates output topics when you run persistent CREATE STREAM AS SELECT or CREATE TABLE AS SELECT queries.

The authenticated ksqlDB user requires DESCRIBE and WRITE permissions on each output topic.

By default, ksqlDB will attempt to create any output topics that do not exist. To allow this, the authenticated ksqlDB user requires CREATE permissions on the CLUSTER resource type. Alternatively, topics can be created manually before running ksqlDB. To determine the list of output topics and their required configuration, like partition count, replication factor, and retention policy, you can initially run ksqlDB on a Kafka cluster with none or open ACLs first.

Change-log and repartition topics

Internally, ksqlDB uses repartition and changelog topics for selected operations. ksqlDB requires repartition topics when using either PARTITION BY, or using GROUP BY on non-key values, and requires changelog topics for any CREATE TABLE x AS statements.

The authenticated ksqlDB user requires DESCRIBE, READ, and WRITE permissions for each changelog and repartition TOPIC.

By default, ksqlDB will attempt to create any repartition or changelog topics that do not exist. To allow this, the authenticated ksqlDB user requires CREATE permissions on the CLUSTER resource type. Alternatively, you can create topics manually before running ksqlDB. To determine the list of output topics and their required configuration, (partition count, replication factor, retention policy, etc), you can run initially run ksqlDB on a Kafka cluster with none or open ACLs first.

All changelog and repartition topics are prefixed with _confluent-ksql-<ksql.service.id> where ksql.service.id defaults to default_, (for more information, see ksql.service.id), and postfixed with either -changelog or -repartition, respectively.

Consumer groups

ksqlDB uses Kafka consumer groups when consuming input, change-log and repartition topics. The set of consumer groups that ksqlDB requires depends on the queries that are being executed.

The authenticated ksqlDB user requires DESCRIBE and READ permissions for each consumer GROUP.

The easiest way to determine the list of consumer groups is to initially run the queries on a Kafka cluster with none or open ACLS and then list the groups created. For more information about how to list groups, see Managing Consumer Groups.

Consumer group names are formatted like _confluent-ksql-<value of ksql.service.id property>_query_<query id>, where the default of ksql.service.id is default_.

Tip

For more information about interactive and non-interactive queries, see Non-interactive (Headless) ksqlDB Usage.

Next Steps


Last update: 2020-06-16