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Manage metadata schemas

Use the ksql-migrations tool to manage metadata schemas for your ksqlDB clusters by applying statements from migration files to your ksqlDB clusters. This enables you to keep your SQL statements for creating streams, tables, and queries in version control and manage the versions of your ksqlDB clusters based on the migration files that have been applied.

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usage: ksql-migrations [ {-c | --config-file} <config-file> ] <command> [ <args> ]

Commands are:
    apply                 Migrates the metadata schema to a new schema version.
    create                Creates a blank migration file with the specified description, which can then be populated with ksqlDB statements and applied as the next schema version.
    destroy-metadata      Destroys all ksqlDB server resources related to migrations, including the migrations metadata stream and table and their underlying Kafka topics. WARNING: this is not reversible!
    help                  Display help information
    info                  Displays information about the current and available migrations.
    initialize-metadata   Initializes the migrations schema metadata (ksqlDB stream and table) on the ksqlDB server.
    new-project           Creates a new migrations project directory structure and config file.
    validate              Validates applied migrations against local files.

See 'ksql-migrations help <command>' for more information on a specific
command.

The ksql-migrations tool supports migrations files containing the following types of ksqlDB statements:

  • CREATE STREAM
  • CREATE TABLE
  • CREATE STREAM ... AS SELECT
  • CREATE TABLE ... AS SELECT
  • CREATE OR REPLACE
  • INSERT INTO ... AS SELECT
  • PAUSE <queryID>
  • RESUME <queryID>
  • TERMINATE <queryID>
  • DROP STREAM
  • DROP TABLE
  • ALTER STREAM
  • ALTER TABLE
  • INSERT INTO ... VALUES
  • CREATE CONNECTOR
  • DROP CONNECTOR
  • CREATE TYPE
  • DROP TYPE
  • SET <property>
  • UNSET <property>
  • DEFINE <variable> - available if both ksql-migrations and the server are version 0.18 or newer.
  • UNDEFINE <variable> - available if both ksql-migrations and the server are version 0.18 or newer.
  • ASSERT SCHEMA - available if both ksql-migrations and the server are version 0.27 or newer.
  • ASSERT TOPIC - available if both ksql-migrations and the server are version 0.27 or newer.

Any properties or variables set using the SET, UNSET, DEFINE and UNDEFINE are applied in the current migration file only. They do not carry over to the next migration file, even if multiple migration files are applied as part of the same ksql-migrations apply command

Requirements and Installation

The ksql-migrations tool is available with all ksqlDB versions starting from ksqlDB 0.17 or Confluent Platform 6.2. You can use the tool to manage any ksqlDB cluster running version ksqlDB 0.10 (Confluent Platform 6.0) or newer.

Docker

To run the ksql-migrations tool with Docker, you may use either the ksqlDB server or ksqlDB CLI image. Mount the root directory of your migrations project into the container for use by the ksql-migrations tool. For example, the following command creates a new migrations project in the local ./my/migrations/dir directory to connect to a ksqlDB server listening at http://localhost:8088 (which is accessed from within the Docker container at http://host.docker.internal:8088):

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docker run -v $PWD/my/migrations/dir:/share/ksql-migrations confluentinc/ksqldb-server:0.28.3 ksql-migrations new-project /share/ksql-migrations http://host.docker.internal:8088

Similarly, the following command initializes migrations metadata on the ksqlDB server for the same setup:

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docker run -v $PWD/my/migrations/dir:/share/ksql-migrations confluentinc/ksqldb-server:0.28.3 ksql-migrations --config-file /share/ksql-migrations/ksql-migrations.properties initialize-metadata

See the sections below for more on the different ksql-migrations commands.

Setup and Initialization

Initial Setup

To get started with the ksql-migrations tool, use the ksql-migrations new-project command to set up the required directory structure and create a config file for using the migrations tool.

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ksql-migrations new-project [--] <project-path> <ksql-server-url>

The two required arguments are the path that will be used as the root directory for your new migrations project, and your ksqlDB server URL.

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$ ksql-migrations new-project /my/migrations/project/path http://localhost:8088

Your output should resemble:

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Creating new migrations project at /my/migrations/project/path
Creating directory: /my/migrations/project/path
Creating directory: /my/migrations/project/path/migrations
Creating file: /my/migrations/project/path/ksql-migrations.properties
Writing to config file: ksql.server.url=http://localhost:8088
...
Migrations project directory created successfully
Execution time: 0.0080 seconds

This command creates a config file, named ksql-migrations.properties, in the specified directory, and also creates an empty /migrations subdirectory. The config file is initialized with the ksqlDB server URL passed as part of the command.

As a convenience, the config file is also initialized with default values for other migrations tool configurations commented out. These additional, optional configurations include configs required to access secure ksqlDB servers, such as credentials for HTTP basic authentication or TLS keystores and truststores, as well as optional configurations specific to the migrations tool.

See the config reference for details on individual configs. See here for the configs required to connect to a Confluent Cloud ksqlDB cluster.

Initialize Migrations Metadata

The ksql-migrations tool keeps track of applied migration versions in a ksqlDB stream and table, the migrations metadata stream and table. To begin managing your ksqlDB cluster from your migrations project, initialize the migrations metadata stream and table on your ksqlDB cluster by using the ksql-migrations initialize-metadata command.

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ksql-migrations {-c | --config-file} <config-file> initialize-metadata

Provide the path to the config file of your migrations project when you run this command.

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$ ksql-migrations --config-file /my/migrations/project/ksql-migrations.properties initialize-metadata

Your output should resemble:

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Initializing migrations metadata
Creating stream: MIGRATION_EVENTS
Creating table: MIGRATION_SCHEMA_VERSIONS
Migrations metadata initialized successfully
Execution time: 2.7040 seconds

Now that you've initialized the migrations metadata on your ksqlDB cluster, you're ready to create and apply migrations.

Create Migrations

Migration files are located in the /migrations subdirectory of your migrations project and are named according to the convention V<six digit version>__<description>.sql. Here's an example directory structure:

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<migrations-project-dir>
|
|- ksql-migrations.properties
|- migrations/
   |
   |- V000001__Initial_setup.sql
   |- V000002__Add_users.sql

Use the ksql-migrations create command to create a blank migration file according to the previous naming scheme, which you can populate with ksqlDB statements and apply to your ksqlDB cluster.

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ksql-migrations {-c | --config-file} <config-file> create
                [ {-v | --version} <version> ] [--] <description>

To use the ksql-migrations create command, provide the path to the config file of your migrations project along with a description for your new migration file. You can optionally pass in a specific version number for the new file as well. If unspecified, the next available version number is used. Note that 0 is not a valid migration version.

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$ ksql-migrations --config-file /my/migrations/project/ksql-migrations.properties create Add_users

Your output should resemble:

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Creating migration file: /my/migrations/project/migrations/V000002__Add_users.sql
Migration file successfully created
Execution time: 0.0480 seconds

You can now populate the empty migrations file with ksqlDB statements and apply the migration to your cluster.

Apply Migrations

The ksql-migrations apply command reads ksqlDB statements from your migration files and applies them to your ksqlDB cluster.

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ksql-migrations {-c | --config-file} <config-file> apply
                [ {-a | --all} ] 
                [ {-n | --next} ] 
                [ {-u | --until} <untilVersion> ] 
                [ {-v | --version} <version> ]
                [ {-d | --define} <variableName>=<variableValue> ]
                [ --headers <headersFile> ]
                [ --dry-run ] 

There are four different modes for specifying which migration file version(s) to apply: * all: Apply all available migration files, from the latest applied version. * next: Apply the next available migration file, from the latest applied version. * until: Apply all available migration files, from the latest applied version through the specified untilVersion. * version: Apply the migration file with the specified version only. The supplied version cannot be older than the latest applied version.

In addition to selecting a mode for ksql-migrations apply, you must also provide the path to the config file of your migrations project as part of the command.

If both your ksqlDB server and migration tool are version 0.18 and newer, you can define variables by passing the --define flag followed by a string of the form name=value any number of times. For example, the following command

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$ ksql-migrations --config-file /my/migrations/project/ksql-migrations.properties apply --next -d foo=bar -d car=3

is equivalent to having the following lines at the beginning of each migration file:

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DEFINE foo='bar';
DEFINE car='3';

You can optionally use the --dry-run flag to see which migration file(s) the command will apply before running the actual ksql-migrations apply command to update your ksqlDB cluster. The dry run does not validate whether the ksqlDB server will accept the statements in your migration file(s). Instead, the dry run only displays the commands that the migrations tool will attempt to send to the ksqlDB server.

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$ ksql-migrations --config-file /my/migrations/project/ksql-migrations.properties apply --next --dry-run

Your output should resemble:

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This is a dry run. No ksqlDB statements will be submitted to the ksqlDB server.
Validating current migration state before applying new migrations
Loading migration files
1 migration file(s) loaded.
Applying migration version 2: Add users
/my/migrations/project/migrations/V000002__Add_users.sql contents:
CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE users (user_id VARCHAR PRIMARY KEY, email VARCHAR, country VARCHAR) WITH (KAFKA_TOPIC='users', FORMAT='JSON');

Dry run complete. No migrations were actually applied.
Execution time: 1.2270 seconds

When you're ready, remove the --dry-run flag to submit the statements to your ksqlDB server:

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$ ksql-migrations --config-file /my/migrations/project/ksql-migrations.properties apply --next

Your output should resemble:

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Validating current migration state before applying new migrations
Loading migration files
1 migration file(s) loaded.
Applying migration version 2: Add users
/my/migrations/project/migrations/V000002__Add_users.sql contents:
CREATE OR REPLACE TABLE users (user_id VARCHAR PRIMARY KEY, email VARCHAR, country VARCHAR) WITH (KAFKA_TOPIC='users', FORMAT='JSON');

Successfully migrated
Execution time: 1.2320 seconds

The apply command does not apply migration files atomically. If a migration file containing multiple ksqlDB statements fails during the migration, it's possible that some of the statements will have been run on the ksqlDB server while later statements have not.

You can optionally pass custom request headers to be sent with all ksqlDB requests made as part of the apply command by passing the location of a file containing the custom request headers with the --headers flag:

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$ ksql-migrations --config-file /my/migrations/project/ksql-migrations.properties apply --next --headers /my/migrations/project/request_headers.txt

Format your headers file with one header name and value pair on each line, separated either with a colon or an equals sign. Both of the following are valid:

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X-My-Custom-Header: abcdefg
X-My-Other-Custom-Header: asdfgh
or
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X-My-Custom-Header=abcdefg
X-My-Other-Custom-Header=asdfgh

View Current Migration Status

To view your current migration version and the status of applied migrations, use the ksql-migrations info command.

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ksql-migrations {-c | --config-file} <config-file> info

As with the other commands, pass in the path to the config file of your migrations project as part of the command.

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$ ksql-migrations --config-file /my/migrations/project/ksql-migrations.properties info

Your output should resemble:

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Current migration version: 2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 Version | Name          | State    | Previous Version | Started On                  | Completed On                | Error Reason 
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1       | Initial setup | MIGRATED | <none>           | 2021-03-03 23:47:50.455 PST | 2021-03-03 23:47:50.689 PST | N/A          
 2       | Add users     | MIGRATED | 1                | 2021-03-03 23:51:42.787 PST | 2021-03-03 23:51:42.973 PST | N/A          
 3       | Add orders    | PENDING  | N/A              | N/A                         | N/A                         | N/A          
 4       | Enrich orders | PENDING  | N/A              | N/A                         | N/A                         | N/A          
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Validate Applied Migrations

Use the ksql-migrations validate command to validate that the migrations that have been applied to your ksqlDB cluster are the same as the migration files in your migrations project directory.

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ksql-migrations {-c | --config-file} <config-file> validate

When a migration file is applied to your ksqlDB cluster, the ksql-migrations tool computes the MD5 hash of the migration file and writes the hash into the migrations metadata stream as a checksum. The ksql-migrations validate command computes hashes for your local migration files and compares them to the checksums saved in the migrations metadata stream.

To use the command, provide the path to the config file of your migrations project as part of the command.

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$ ksql-migrations --config-file /my/migrations/project/ksql-migrations.properties validate

Your output should resemble:

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Successfully validated checksums for migrations that have already been applied
Execution time: 1.0360 seconds

The validate command validates only the checksums saved in the migrations metadata against your local files. The command does not perform any verification on the set of streams, tables, queries, and connectors present in your ksqlDB cluster, in relation to the ksqlDB statements contained in your migration files.

Reset Migration State

If you wish to dissociate your migrations project from your ksqlDB cluster, you can use the ksql-migrations destroy-metadata command to remove all migrations metadata from your ksqlDB cluster. This does not undo any applied migrations. Instead, ksqlDB statements that have already been submitted to the ksqlDB server remain intact, but the migrations metadata stream and table, along with their underlying Kafka topics, will be cleaned up from your ksqlDB cluster. This action is not reversible, so exercise caution when using this command.

Once the migrations metadata has been cleaned up, you can use the ksql-migrations initialize-metadata command to re-create the migrations metadata stream and table in order to associate your ksqlDB cluster with a new migrations project.

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ksql-migrations {-c | --config-file} <config-file> destroy-metadata

To use the ksql-migrations destroy-metadata command to delete migrations metadata from your ksqlDB cluster, provide the path to the config file of your migrations project as part of the command.

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$ ksql-migrations --config-file /my/migrations/project/ksql-migrations.properties destroy-metadata

Your output should resemble:

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Cleaning migrations metadata stream and table from ksqlDB server
Found 1 query writing to the metadata table. Query ID: CTAS_MIGRATION_SCHEMA_VERSIONS_3
Terminating query with ID: CTAS_MIGRATION_SCHEMA_VERSIONS_3
Dropping migrations metadata table: MIGRATION_SCHEMA_VERSIONS
Dropping migrations metadata stream: MIGRATION_EVENTS
Migrations metadata cleaned successfully
Execution time: 1.6390 seconds

Config Reference

You can configure the ksqlDB migrations tool by updating your ksql-migrations.properties file. The ksql-migrations new-project command sets the ksql.server.url property upon creating the properties file, as this property is required. The properties file is initialized with default values for other properties commented out. To enable other properties, add or uncomment the relevant lines in your ksql-migrations.properties file.

For a complete list of available configurations, see the reference.

Connecting to Confluent Cloud ksqlDB

To use the ksql-migrations tool with your Confluent Cloud ksqlDB cluster, set the following configurations in your ksql-migrations.properties file, which is created as part of setting up your migrations project.

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ksql.auth.basic.username=<CCLOUD_KSQLDB_APIKEY>
ksql.auth.basic.password=<CCLOUD_KSQLDB_APIKEY_SECRET>
ksql.migrations.topic.replicas=3
ssl.alpn=true

Troubleshooting

Validation Failures

Prior to applying new migrations, the ksql-migrations tool validates the current state of applied migrations including the following:

  • The latest migration version has completed, i.e., does not have status RUNNING.
  • The migration history is valid, i.e., starting from the latest applied migration version and repeatedly following the previous migration version saved in the migrations metadata with each applied migration leads back to the first applied migration version.
  • Each applied migration version in the chain of migration versions above has status MIGRATED.
  • The migration file checksum saved for each migrated version matches what's currently present on local disk.

With the exception of the first bullet, this is the same verification performed by the ksql-migrations validate command.

If you find yourself in a situation where validation fails and you are unable to perform further migrations as a result, you can repair your migrations metadata so that validation once again passes. This type of intervention may be needed if a ksql-migrations apply command is aborted and a migration status is never transitioned out of RUNNING as a result, or if race conditions between multiple, simultaneous invocations of ksql-migrations apply corrupt the migrations metadata, as the ksql-migrations tool does not support performing simultaneous migrations.

To repair your migrations metadata, first inspect the metadata with the ksql-migrations info command. You can also consume the migration metadata table on your ksqlDB cluster as a regular ksqlDB table. Here's an example push query, where <MIGRATIONS_TABLE_NAME> is the value of the ksql.migrations.table.name config, which defaults to MIGRATION_SCHEMA_VERSIONS.

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SELECT * FROM <MIGRATIONS_TABLE_NAME> EMIT CHANGES;

You can then update your migrations metadata by inserting into your migrations metadata stream, where <MIGRATIONS_STREAM_NAME> is the value of the ksql.migrations.stream.name config, which defaults to MIGRATION_EVENTS, and the other variables represented in angle brackets are the values to insert:

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INSERT INTO <MIGRATIONS_STREAM_NAME> (
    version_key, 
    version, 
    name, 
    state, 
    checksum, 
    started_on, 
    completed_on, 
    previous, 
    error_reason
) VALUES (
    '<MIGRATION_VERSION or 'CURRENT'>',
    '<MIGRATION_VERSION>',
    '<MIGRATION_NAME>',
    '<MIGRATION_STATE>'
    '<FILE_CHECKSUM>',
    '<START_TIMESTAMP>',
    '<COMPLETION_TIMESTAMP>',
    '<PREVIOUS_MIGIRATION_VERSION>',
    '<ERROR_REASON>'
);

For example, if validation fails because the latest migration version has status RUNNING, you can manually transition the migration status to ERROR in order to repair the migrations metadata.

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INSERT INTO MIGRATION_EVENTS (
    version_key, 
    version, 
    name, 
    state, 
    checksum, 
    started_on, 
    completed_on, 
    previous, 
    error_reason
) VALUES (
    '2',
    '2',
    'Add users',
    'ERROR',
    '1bdb2489db5d969dc2f2bc918407f2d6',
    '1615441337127',
    '1615441337408',
    '1',
    'Manual abort after migration stuck RUNNING'
);

If you're performing a repair on the metadata for the latest migration version, you'll want to also perform the repair on the version key CURRENT, used for tracking the latest migration version.

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INSERT INTO MIGRATION_EVENTS (
    version_key, 
    version, 
    name, 
    state, 
    checksum, 
    started_on, 
    completed_on, 
    previous, 
    error_reason
) VALUES (
    'CURRENT',
    '2',
    'Add users',
    'ERROR',
    '1bdb2489db5d969dc2f2bc918407f2d6',
    '1615441337127',
    '1615441337408',
    '1',
    'Manual abort after migration stuck RUNNING'
);

Once you've updated the migrations metadata stream, the migrations metadata table will update automatically and metadata validation will be unblocked.

Next Steps


Last update: 2022-08-15