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How to create a user-defined function

Context

You have a piece of logic for transforming or aggregating events that ksqlDB can't currently express. You want to extend ksqlDB to apply that logic in your queries. To do that, ksqlDB exposes hooks through Java programs. This functionality is broadly called user-defined functions, or UDFs for short.

In action

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package com.example;

import io.confluent.ksql.function.udf.Udf;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udf.UdfDescription;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udf.UdfParameter;

import java.util.Map;

@UdfDescription(name = "formula",
                author = "example user",
                version = "1.0.2",
                description = "A custom formula for important business logic.")
public class FormulaUdf {

    @Udf(description = "The standard version of the formula with integer parameters.")
    public long formula(@UdfParameter int v1, @UdfParameter int v2) {
        return (v1 * v2);
    }

    @Udf(description = "A special variant of the formula, handling double parameters.")
    public long formula(@UdfParameter double v1, @UdfParameter double v2) {
        return ((int) (Math.ceil(v1) * Math.ceil(v2)));
    }

}

Set up a Java project

To implement a user-defined function, start by creating a Java project with a dependency on ksqlDB's UDF library. This library contains the annotations you use to signal that the classes you're implementing are UDFs specifically. You can manage your Java project with any build tool, but this guide demonstrates how it works with Gradle. If you like, you can use the Maven archetype instead. What matters is that you can put an uberjar in ksqlDB's extension directory.

In a fresh directory, create the following build.gradle file to set up the Java project:

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buildscript {
    repositories {
        jcenter()
    }
}

plugins {
    id "java"
    id "com.github.johnrengelman.shadow" version "6.0.0"
}

sourceCompatibility = "1.8"
targetCompatibility = "1.8"
version = "0.0.1"

repositories {
    mavenCentral()
    jcenter()

    maven {
        url "https://packages.confluent.io/maven"
    }
}

dependencies {
    implementation "io.confluent.ksql:ksqldb-udf:5.5.0"
    implementation "org.apache.kafka:kafka_2.13:2.5.0"
    implementation "org.apache.kafka:connect-api:2.5.0"
}

apply plugin: "com.github.johnrengelman.shadow"
apply plugin: "java"

compileJava {
    options.compilerArgs << "-parameters"
}

shadowJar {
    archiveBaseName = "example-udfs"
    archiveClassifier = ""
    destinationDirectory = file("extensions")
}

Notice that:

  • Dependencies are also declared on kafka and connect-api. You need both of these dependencies to make your UDFs capable of being externally configured or able to handle structs. This guide does both of those things.

  • The Java compiler is invoked with the -parameters flag. This enables the JVM to retain method parameter names at runtime, which ksqlDB can use as autogenerated documentation in DESCRIBE FUNCTION statements.

Implement the classes

There are three kinds of UDFs which manipulate rows in different ways: scalar functions, tabular functions, and aggregation functions. Each is demonstrated below with simple examples using a variety of features. You can learn about more sophisticated usage in the concepts section.

Start by creating a directory for the class files:

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mkdir -p src/main/java/com/example

Scalar functions

A scalar function (UDF for short) consumes one row as input and produces one row as output. Use this when you simply want to transform a value.

Create a file at src/main/java/com/example/FormulaUdf.java and populate it with the following code. This UDF takes two parameters and executes a simple formula.

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package com.example;

import io.confluent.ksql.function.udf.Udf;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udf.UdfDescription;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udf.UdfParameter;

import org.apache.kafka.common.Configurable;

import java.util.Map;

@UdfDescription(name = "formula",
                author = "example user",
                version = "1.0.2",
                description = "A custom formula for important business logic.")
public class FormulaUdf implements Configurable {

    private int baseValue;

    @Override
    public void configure(final Map<String, ?> map) {
        String s = (String) map.get("ksql.functions.formula.base.value");
        baseValue = Integer.parseInt(s);
    }

    @Udf(description = "The standard version of the formula with integer parameters.")
    public long formula(@UdfParameter int v1, @UdfParameter int v2) {
        return (v1 * v2) + baseValue;
    }

    @Udf(description = "A special variant of the formula, handling double parameters.")
    public long formula(@UdfParameter double v1, @UdfParameter double v2) {
        return ((int) (Math.ceil(v1) * Math.ceil(v2))) + baseValue;
    }

}

Some important points to notice:

  • The @UdfDescription annotation marks the class as a scalar UDF. The name parameter gives the function a name so you can refer to it in SQL. You can optionally add a version, which is a string of your choosing. You might find this useful if you evolve a function overtime and want to know which particular version a server is currently using.

  • The @Udf annotation marks a method as a body of code to invoke when the function is called. Because ksqlDB is strongly typed, you need to supply multiple signatures if you want your function to work with different column types. This UDF has two signatures: one that takes integer parameters and another that takes doubles.

  • The @UdfParameter annotation marks each parameter of the method. This can be used for providing some amount of optional metadata about each parameter, but it's mainly useful so that ksqlDB can infer information at runtime.

  • This UDF uses an external parameter, ksql.functions.formula.base.value. When a UDF implements the Configurable interface, it will be invoked once as the server starts up. configure() supplies a map of the parameters that ksqlDB server was started with. You will see how this value is populated later in the guide.

Warning

External parameters aren't yet supported for tabular or aggregation functions.

Either continue following this guide by implementing more functions or skip ahead to compiling the classes so you can use the functions in ksqlDB.

Tabular functions

A tabular function (UDTF for short) takes one row as input and produces zero or more rows as output. This is sometimes called "flat map" or "mapcat" in different programming languages. Use this when a value represents many smaller values and needs to be "exploded" into its individual parts to be useful.

Create a file at src/main/java/com/example/IndexSequenceUdtf.java and populate it with the following code. This UDTF takes one parameter as input, an array of any type, and returns a sequence of rows, where each element is the element in the array concatenated with its index position as a string.

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package com.example;

import io.confluent.ksql.function.udtf.Udtf;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udtf.UdtfDescription;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udf.UdfParameter;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

@UdtfDescription(name = "index_seq",
                 author = "example user",
                 version = "1.5.0",
                 description = "Disassembles a sequence and produces new elements concatenated with indices.")
public class IndexSequenceUdtf {

    private final String DELIMITER = "-";

    @Udtf(description = "Takes an array of any type and returns rows with each element paired to its index.")
    public <E> List<String> indexSequence(@UdfParameter List<E> x) {
        List<String> result = new ArrayList<>();

        for(int i = 0; i < x.size(); i++) { 
            result.add(x.get(i) + DELIMITER + i);
        }

        return result;
    }

}

Notice how:

  • The UDTF returns a Java List. This is the collection type that ksqlDB expects all tabular functions to return.

  • This UDTF uses Java generics, which enable operating over any ksqlDB supported types. Use this if you want to express logic that operates uniformly over many different column types. The generic parameter must be declared at the head of the method, since you can have multiple signatures, each with a different generic type parameter.

Info

Java arrays and Lists are not interchangable in user-defined functions, which is especially important to remember when working with UDTFs. ksqlDB arrays correspond to the Java List type, not native Java arrays.

Either continue following this guide by implementing more functions or skip ahead to compiling the classes so you can use the functions in ksqlDB.

Aggregation functions

An aggregation function (UDAF for short) consumes one row at a time and maintains a stateful representation of all historical data. Use this when you want to compound data from multiple rows together.

Create a file at src/main/java/com/example/RollingSumUdaf.java and populate it with the following code. This UDAF maintains a rolling sum of the last 3 integers in a stream, discarding the oldest values as new ones arrive.

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package com.example;

import io.confluent.ksql.function.udaf.Udaf;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udaf.UdafDescription;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udaf.UdafFactory;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.Iterator;

@UdafDescription(name = "rolling_sum",
                 author = "example user",
                 version = "2.0.0",
                 description = "Maintains a rolling sum of the last 3 integers of a stream.")
public class RollingSumUdaf {

    private RollingSumUdaf() {
    }

    @UdafFactory(description = "Sums the previous 3 integers of a stream, discarding the oldest elements as new ones arrive.")
    public static Udaf<Integer, List<Integer>, Integer> createUdaf() {
        return new RollingSumUdafImpl();
    }

    private static class RollingSumUdafImpl implements Udaf<Integer, List<Integer>, Integer> {

        private final int CAPACITY = 3;

        @Override
        public List<Integer> initialize() {
            return new LinkedList<Integer>();
        }

        @Override
        public List<Integer> aggregate(Integer newValue, List<Integer> aggregateValue) {
            aggregateValue.add(newValue);

            if (aggregateValue.size() > CAPACITY) {
                aggregateValue = aggregateValue.subList(1, CAPACITY + 1);
            }

            return aggregateValue;
        }

        @Override
        public Integer map(List<Integer> intermediate) {
            return intermediate.stream().reduce(0, Integer::sum);
        }

        @Override
        public List<Integer> merge(List<Integer> aggOne, List<Integer> aggTwo) {
            return aggTwo;
        }
    }
}

There are many things to observe in this class:

  • Aggregation functions are designated by a static method with the @UdafFactory annotation, which differs from scalar and tabular functions. Because aggregations must implement multiple methods, this helps ksqlDB differentiate aggregations when multiple type signatures are used.

  • The static factory method must either return Udaf or TableUdaf in package io.confluent.ksql.function.udaf.

    • Use the Udaf return value, as shown in this example, to aggregate streams into tables.

    • Use the TableUdaf return value, which derives from Udaf, to aggregate tables into other tables. Also, you must implement the undo() method.

  • ksqlDB decouples the internal representation of an aggregate from its use in an operation. This is useful because aggregations can maintain complex state and expose it in a simpler way in a query. In this example, the internal representation is a LinkedList, as indicated by the initialize() method. But when ksqlDB interacts with the aggregation value, map() is called, which sums the values in the list. The List is needed to keep a running history of values, but the summed value is needed for the query itself.

  • UDAFs must be parameterized with three generic types. In this example, they are <Integer, List<Integer>, Integer>. The first parameter represents the type of the column to aggregate over. The second column represents the internal representation of the aggregation, which is established in initialize(). The third parameter represents the type that the query interacts with, which is converted by map().

  • All types, including inputs, intermediate representations, and final representations, must be types that ksqlDB supports.

  • The merge method controls how two session windows fuse together when one extends and overlaps another. In this example, the content of the "later" aggregate is simply taken since it by definition contains values from a later window of time. If you're using session windows, consider what good merge semantics are for your aggregation.

Add the uberjar to ksqlDB server

In order for ksqlDB to be able to load your UDFs, they need to be compiled from classes into an uberjar. Run the following command to build an uberjar:

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gradle shadowJar

You should now have a directory, extensions, with a file named example-udfs-0.0.1.jar in it.

In order to use the uberjar, you need to make it available to ksqlDB server. Create the following docker-compose.yml file:

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---
version: '2'

services:
  zookeeper:
    image: confluentinc/cp-zookeeper:5.5.0
    hostname: zookeeper
    container_name: zookeeper
    ports:
      - "2181:2181"
    environment:
      ZOOKEEPER_CLIENT_PORT: 2181
      ZOOKEEPER_TICK_TIME: 2000

  broker:
    image: confluentinc/cp-enterprise-kafka:5.5.0
    hostname: broker
    container_name: broker
    depends_on:
      - zookeeper
    ports:
      - "29092:29092"
    environment:
      KAFKA_BROKER_ID: 1
      KAFKA_ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT: 'zookeeper:2181'
      KAFKA_LISTENER_SECURITY_PROTOCOL_MAP: PLAINTEXT:PLAINTEXT,PLAINTEXT_HOST:PLAINTEXT
      KAFKA_ADVERTISED_LISTENERS: PLAINTEXT://broker:9092,PLAINTEXT_HOST://localhost:29092
      KAFKA_OFFSETS_TOPIC_REPLICATION_FACTOR: 1
      KAFKA_GROUP_INITIAL_REBALANCE_DELAY_MS: 0
      KAFKA_TRANSACTION_STATE_LOG_MIN_ISR: 1
      KAFKA_TRANSACTION_STATE_LOG_REPLICATION_FACTOR: 1

  schema-registry:
    image: confluentinc/cp-schema-registry:5.5.0
    hostname: schema-registry
    container_name: schema-registry
    depends_on:
      - zookeeper
      - broker
    ports:
      - "8081:8081"
    environment:
      SCHEMA_REGISTRY_HOST_NAME: schema-registry
      SCHEMA_REGISTRY_KAFKASTORE_CONNECTION_URL: 'zookeeper:2181'

  ksqldb-server:
    image: confluentinc/ksqldb-server:0.11.0
    hostname: ksqldb-server
    container_name: ksqldb-server
    depends_on:
      - broker
      - schema-registry
    ports:
      - "8088:8088"
    volumes:
      - "./extensions/:/opt/ksqldb-udfs"
    environment:
      KSQL_LISTENERS: "http://0.0.0.0:8088"
      KSQL_BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS: "broker:9092"
      KSQL_KSQL_SCHEMA_REGISTRY_URL: "http://schema-registry:8081"
      KSQL_KSQL_LOGGING_PROCESSING_STREAM_AUTO_CREATE: "true"
      KSQL_KSQL_LOGGING_PROCESSING_TOPIC_AUTO_CREATE: "true"
      # Configuration for UDFs
      KSQL_KSQL_EXTENSION_DIR: "/opt/ksqldb-udfs"
      KSQL_KSQL_FUNCTIONS_FORMULA_BASE_VALUE: 5

  ksqldb-cli:
    image: confluentinc/ksqldb-cli:0.11.0
    container_name: ksqldb-cli
    depends_on:
      - broker
      - ksqldb-server
    entrypoint: /bin/sh
    tty: true

Notice that:

  • A volume is mounted from the local extensions directory (containing your uberjar) to the container /opt/ksqldb-udfs directory. The latter can be any directory that you like. This command effectively puts the uberjar on ksqlDB server's file system.

  • The environment variable KSQL_KSQL_EXTENSION_DIR is configured to the same path that was set for the container in the volume mount. This is the path that ksqlDB will look for UDFs in.

  • The environment variable KSQL_KSQL_FUNCTIONS_FORMULA_BASE_VALUE is set to 5. Recall that in the UDF example, the function loads an external parameter namedksql.functions.formula.base.value. All KSQL_ environment variables are converted automatically to server configuration properties, which is where UDF parameters are looked up.

Info

Although this is a single node setup, remember that every node in your ksqlDB cluster needs to have event variable parameters configured since any node can handle any query at any time.

Invoke the functions

Bring up your stack by running:

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docker-compose up

And connect to ksqlDB's server by using its interactive CLI:

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docker exec -it ksqldb-cli ksql http://ksqldb-server:8088

Verify that your functions have been loaded by running the following ksqlDB command:

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SHOW FUNCTIONS;

You should see a long list of built-in functions, including your own FORMULA, INDEX_SEQ, and ROLLING_SUM (which are listed as SCALAR, TABLE, and AGGREGATE respectivly). If they aren't there, check that your uberjar was correctly mounted into the container. Be sure to check the log files of ksqlDB server, too, using docker logs -f ksqldb-server. You should see log lines similar to:

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[2020-06-24 23:38:10,942] INFO Adding UDAF name=rolling_sum from path=/opt/ksqldb-udfs/example-udfs-0.0.1.jar class=class my.example.RollingSumUdaf (io.confluent.ksql.function.UdafLoader:71)

Info

UDFs are loaded only once as ksqlDB server starts up. ksqlDB does not support hot-reloading UDFs. If you want to change the code of a UDF, you must create a new uberjar, replace the one that is available to ksqlDB, and restart the server. Keep in mind that in a multi-node setup, different nodes may be running different versions of a UDF at the same time.

Before you run any queries, be sure to have ksqlDB start all queries from the earliest point in each topic.

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SET 'auto.offset.reset' = 'earliest';

Invoke the scalar function

Inspect the formula function by running:

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DESCRIBE FUNCTION formula;

Your output should resemble:

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Name        : FORMULA
Author      : example user
Version     : 1.0.2
Overview    : A custom formula for important business logic.
Type        : SCALAR
Jar         : /opt/ksqldb-udfs/example-udfs-0.0.1.jar
Variations  : 

    Variation   : FORMULA(v1 DOUBLE, v2 DOUBLE)
    Returns     : BIGINT
    Description : A special variant of the formula, handling double parameters.

    Variation   : FORMULA(v1 INT, v2 INT)
    Returns     : BIGINT
    Description : The standard version of the formula with integer parameters.

Create a stream named s1:

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CREATE STREAM s1 (
    a VARCHAR KEY,
    b INT,
    c INT
) WITH (
    kafka_topic = 's1',
    partitions = 1,
    value_format = 'avro'
);

The DESCRIBE FUNCTION statement shows all of the type signatures that the UDF implements. For the formula function, there are two type signatures.

Insert some rows into the stream:

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INSERT INTO s1 (a, b, c) VALUES ('k1', 2, 3);
INSERT INTO s1 (a, b, c) VALUES ('k2', 4, 6);
INSERT INTO s1 (a, b, c) VALUES ('k3', 6, 9);

Execute a push query. The formula function multiplies two integers and adds the value of the parameter ksql.functions.formula.base.value, which is set to 5 in your Docker Compose file:

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SELECT a, formula(b, c) AS result FROM s1 EMIT CHANGES;

Your output should resemble:

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+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|A                                                             |RESULT                                                        |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|k1                                                            |11                                                            |
|k2                                                            |29                                                            |
|k3                                                            |59                                                            |

Try the other variant of the formula function, which takes two doubles. This implementation takes the ceiling of a and b before multiplying. Notice how you can use constants instead of column names as arguments to the function:

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SELECT a, formula(CAST(b AS DOUBLE), 7.3) AS result FROM s1 EMIT CHANGES;

Your output should resemble:

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+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|A                                                             |RESULT                                                        |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|k1                                                            |21                                                            |
|k2                                                            |37                                                            |
|k3                                                            |53                                                            |

Invoke the tabular function

Inspect the index_seq function by running:

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DESCRIBE FUNCTION index_seq;

Your output should resemble:

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Name        : INDEX_SEQ
Author      : example user
Version     : 1.5.0
Overview    : Disassembles a sequence and produces new elements concatenated with indices.
Type        : TABLE
Jar         : /opt/ksqldb-udfs/example-udfs-0.0.1.jar
Variations  : 

    Variation   : INDEX_SEQ(x ARRAY<E>)
    Returns     : VARCHAR
    Description : Disassembles a sequence and produces new elements concatenated with indices.

The DESCRIBE FUNCTION statement shows that index_seq is a generic function with the type parameter E, which means that this UDTF can take a parameter that is an array of any type.

Create a stream named s2:

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CREATE STREAM s2 (
    a VARCHAR KEY,
    b ARRAY<VARCHAR>
) WITH (
    kafka_topic = 's2',
    partitions = 1,
    value_format = 'avro'
);

Insert some rows into the stream:

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INSERT INTO s2 (a, b) VALUES ('k1', ARRAY['a', 'b', 'c']);
INSERT INTO s2 (a, b) VALUES ('k2', ARRAY['d', 'e']);
INSERT INTO s2 (a, b) VALUES ('k3', ARRAY['f']);

Execute a push query. The index_seq function creates one row for each element in an array, concatenated with the element's index position.

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SELECT a, index_seq(b) AS str FROM s2 EMIT CHANGES;

Your output should resemble:

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+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|A                                                             |STR                                                           |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|k1                                                            |a-0                                                           |
|k1                                                            |b-1                                                           |
|k1                                                            |c-2                                                           |
|k2                                                            |d-0                                                           |
|k2                                                            |e-1                                                           |
|k3                                                            |f-0                                                           |

Invoke the aggregation function

Inspect the rolling_sum function by running:

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DESCRIBE FUNCTION rolling_sum;

Your output should resemble:

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Name        : ROLLING_SUM
Author      : example user
Version     : 2.0.0
Overview    : Maintains a rolling sum of the last 3 integers of a stream.
Type        : AGGREGATE
Jar         : /opt/ksqldb-udfs/example-udfs-0.0.1.jar
Variations  : 

    Variation   : ROLLING_SUM(val INT)
    Returns     : INT
    Description : Sums the previous 3 integers of a stream, discarding the oldest elements as new ones arrive.

Create a stream named s3:

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CREATE STREAM s3 (
    a VARCHAR KEY,
    b INT
) WITH (
    kafka_topic = 's3',
    partitions = 1,
    value_format = 'avro'
);

Insert some rows into the stream:

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INSERT INTO s3 (a, b) VALUES ('k1', 3);
INSERT INTO s3 (a, b) VALUES ('k1', 5);
INSERT INTO s3 (a, b) VALUES ('k1', 7);
INSERT INTO s3 (a, b) VALUES ('k2', 6);
INSERT INTO s3 (a, b) VALUES ('k2', 2);

Execute a push query. The rolling_sum function aggregates the previous three elements together, sums them, and emits their output.

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SELECT a, rolling_sum(b) AS MOVING_SUM FROM s3 GROUP BY a EMIT CHANGES;

Your output should resemble:

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+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|A                                                             |MOVING_SUM                                                    |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|k1                                                            |15                                                            |
|k2                                                            |8                                                             |

k1 sums 3, 5, and 7 together to get a result of 15. k2 sums 6 and 2 together to get a result of 8.

Insert more rows, to shift older elements out of the aggregate:

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INSERT INTO s3 (a, b) VALUES ('k1', 9);
INSERT INTO s3 (a, b) VALUES ('k2', 1);
INSERT INTO s3 (a, b) VALUES ('k2', 6);

Run the query again:

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SELECT a, rolling_sum(b) AS MOVING_SUM FROM s3 GROUP BY a EMIT CHANGES;

Your output should resemble:

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+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|A                                                             |MOVING_SUM                                                    |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|k1                                                            |21                                                            |
|k2                                                            |9                                                             |

The output from the rolling_sum function has changed. In k1, the previous three values are now 5, 7, and 9. In k2, the elements are now 2, 1, and 6.

Using structs and decimals

Working with structs and decimals in UDFs requires a more specific type contract with ksqlDB. Both of these types are different from the other Java types that ksqlDB interfaces with because their typing is more dynamic. In the case of structs, fields can be added and removed, and their types are inferred on the fly. In the case of decimals, their precision and scale can change based off the inputs they are computed against. Because of this dynamism, UDFs need to be more explicit in their type contract with ksqlDB.

ksqlDB has two mechanisms handling these situations: explicitly provided schemas and dynamic schemas. The former is generally used for working with structs, and the latter is generally used for working with decimals. This guide only uses explicitly provided schemas, but you can read more about dynamic schema returns using the @UdfSchemaProvider in the concepts section.

As an example of explicitly provided schemas, create a simple function that maintains simple statistics. This example uses a UDAF, but the concepts are applicable for UDFs and UDTFs. Although the example is a bit contrived, it is useful because it demonstrates using a struct in all possible positions.

Implement the class

Create a file at src/main/java/com/example/StatsUdaf.java and populate it with the following code. This UDAF maintains the minimum, maximum, count, and difference between the min and max for a series of numbers.

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package my.example;

import io.confluent.ksql.function.udaf.Udaf;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udaf.UdafDescription;
import io.confluent.ksql.function.udaf.UdafFactory;

import org.apache.kafka.connect.data.Struct;
import org.apache.kafka.connect.data.SchemaBuilder;
import org.apache.kafka.connect.data.Schema;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.Iterator;

@UdafDescription(name = "stats",
                 author = "example user",
                 version = "1.3.5",
                 description = "Maintains statistical values.")
public class StatsUdaf {

    public static final Schema PARAM_SCHEMA = SchemaBuilder.struct().optional()
        .field("C", Schema.OPTIONAL_INT64_SCHEMA)
        .build();

    public static final String PARAM_SCHEMA_DESCRIPTOR = "STRUCT<" +
        "C BIGINT" +
        ">";

    public static final Schema AGGREGATE_SCHEMA = SchemaBuilder.struct().optional()
        .field("MIN", Schema.OPTIONAL_INT64_SCHEMA)
        .field("MAX", Schema.OPTIONAL_INT64_SCHEMA)
        .field("COUNT", Schema.OPTIONAL_INT64_SCHEMA)
        .build();

    public static final String AGGREGATE_SCHEMA_DESCRIPTOR = "STRUCT<" +
        "MIN BIGINT," +
        "MAX BIGINT," +
        "COUNT BIGINT" +
        ">";

    public static final Schema RETURN_SCHEMA = SchemaBuilder.struct().optional()
        .field("MIN", Schema.OPTIONAL_INT64_SCHEMA)
        .field("MAX", Schema.OPTIONAL_INT64_SCHEMA)
        .field("COUNT", Schema.OPTIONAL_INT64_SCHEMA)
        .field("DIFFERENTIAL", Schema.OPTIONAL_INT64_SCHEMA)
        .build();

    public static final String RETURN_SCHEMA_DESCRIPTOR = "STRUCT<" +
        "MIN BIGINT," +
        "MAX BIGINT," +
        "COUNT BIGINT," +
        "DIFFERENTIAL BIGINT" +
        ">";

    private StatsUdaf() {
    }

    @UdafFactory(description = "Computes the min, max, count, and difference between min/max.",
                 paramSchema = PARAM_SCHEMA_DESCRIPTOR,
                 aggregateSchema = AGGREGATE_SCHEMA_DESCRIPTOR,
                 returnSchema = RETURN_SCHEMA_DESCRIPTOR)
    public static Udaf<Struct, Struct, Struct> createUdaf() {
        return new StatsUdafImpl();
    }

    private static class StatsUdafImpl implements Udaf<Struct, Struct, Struct> {

        @Override
        public Struct initialize() {
            return new Struct(AGGREGATE_SCHEMA);
        }

        @Override
        public Struct aggregate(Struct newValue, Struct aggregateValue) {
            long c = newValue.getInt64("C");

            long min = Math.min(c, getMin(aggregateValue));
            long max = Math.max(c, getMax(aggregateValue));
            long count = (getCount(aggregateValue) + 1);

            aggregateValue.put("MIN", min);
            aggregateValue.put("MAX", max);
            aggregateValue.put("COUNT", count);

            return aggregateValue;
        }

        @Override
        public Struct map(Struct intermediate) {
            Struct result = new Struct(RETURN_SCHEMA);

            long min = intermediate.getInt64("MIN");
            long max = intermediate.getInt64("MAX");

            result.put("MIN", min);
            result.put("MAX", max);
            result.put("COUNT", intermediate.getInt64("COUNT"));
            result.put("DIFFERENTIAL", max - min);

            return result;
        }

        @Override
        public Struct merge(Struct aggOne, Struct aggTwo) {
            return aggOne;
        }

        private Long getMin(Struct aggregateValue) {
            Long result = aggregateValue.getInt64("MIN");

            if (result != null) {
                return result;
            } else {
                return Long.MAX_VALUE;
            }
        }

        private Long getMax(Struct aggregateValue) {
            Long result = aggregateValue.getInt64("MAX");

            if (result != null) {
                return result;
            } else {
                return Long.MIN_VALUE;
            }
        }

        private Long getCount(Struct aggregateValue) {
            Long result = aggregateValue.getInt64("COUNT");

            if (result != null) {
                return result;
            } else {
                return 0L;
            }
        }
    }
}

There are a few important things to call out in this class:

  • Schemas are declared for the input struct parameter, intermediate aggregation struct value, and output struct value. These structs hold different data, so they each need their own schema.

  • Descriptor strings are created for each schema, too. This communicates the underlying types to ksqlDB is a way that its type system can understand.

  • The schemas, and all of the contained fields, are declared as optional. ksqlDB doesn't have null constraints, meaning that any value can be null. To handle this, all schemas and field values must be marked as optional.

  • The field names in the descriptors must match their declared field names in ksqlDB exactly, including their casing. By default, ksqlDB uppercases all field names, which is why the descriptors are also uppercased. If you use backticks for your field names to preserve casing, you must also use backticks in the descriptors, too.

  • Explicitly declaring schemas is only needed when using structs and decimals. But because this example makes use of structs in all possible places (input, intermediate, and output values), schemas are declared for all of them.

Info

If you're using a struct with a UDF or UDTF, you can set the schema using the Udf, Udtf, and UdfParameter annotations. Each provides the option to supply a schema for various positions.

Create an uberjar in the same manner. If you already have ksqlDB running, be sure to restart it and remount the jar so that it picks up the new code. When you restart the server, keep an eye on the log files. If any of the type schemas are missing or incoherant, ksqlDB will log an error, such as:

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[2020-06-29 21:10:23,889] WARN Failed to create UDAF name=struct_example, method=createUdaf, class=class my.example.StructExample, path=/opt/ksqldb-udfs/example-udfs-0.0.1.jar (io.confluent.ksql.function.UdafLoader:87)
io.confluent.ksql.util.KsqlException: Must specify 'aggregateSchema' for STRUCT parameter in @UdafFactory.

Invoke the function

Try using the UDAF. Create the stream s4:

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CREATE STREAM s4 (
    a VARCHAR KEY,
    b STRUCT<c BIGINT>
) WITH (
    kafka_topic = 's4',
    partitions = 1,
    value_format = 'avro'
);

And insert some rows into it:

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INSERT INTO s4 (
    a, b
) VALUES (
    'k1', STRUCT(c := 5)
);

INSERT INTO s4 (
    a, b
) VALUES (
    'k1', STRUCT(c := 3)
);

INSERT INTO s4 (
    a, b
) VALUES (
    'k1', STRUCT(c := 9)
);

Remember to have ksqlDB start all queries from the earliest point in each topic:

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SET 'auto.offset.reset' = 'earliest';

Execute the following push query:

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SELECT a, stats(b) AS stats FROM s4 GROUP BY a EMIT CHANGES;

Your output should resemble:

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+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|A                                                             |STATS                                                         |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|k1                                                            |{MIN=3, MAX=9, COUNT=3, DIFFERENTIAL=6}                       |

If you like, you can destructure the output into individual columns. Try following the query structured data guide.

Tear down the stack

When you're done, tear down the stack by running:

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docker-compose down

Last update: 2020-07-08