Numeric Functions

ABS

ABS(col1)

The absolute value of a value.

CEIL

CEIL(col1)

The ceiling of a value.

ENTRIES

ENTRIES(map MAP, sorted BOOLEAN)

Constructs an array of structs from the entries in a map. Each struct has a field named K containing the key, which is a string, and a field named V, which holds the value.

If sorted is true, the entries are sorted by key.

EXP

EXP(col1)

The exponential of a value.

FLOOR

FLOOR(col1)

The floor of a value.

GENERATE_SERIES

GENERATE_SERIES(start, end)

Constructs an array of values between start and end (inclusive).
Parameters can be INT or BIGINT.

GENERATE_SERIES

GENERATE_SERIES(start, end, step)

Constructs an array of values between start and end (inclusive) with a specified step size. The step can be positive or negative.
Parameters start and end can be INT or BIGINT. Parameter step must be an INT.

GEO_DISTANCE

GEO_DISTANCE(lat1, lon1, lat2, lon2, unit)

The great-circle distance between two lat-long points, both specified in decimal degrees. An optional final parameter specifies KM (the default) or miles.

LN

LN(col1)

The natural logarithm of a value.

RANDOM

RANDOM()

Return a random DOUBLE value between 0.0 and 1.0.

ROUND

ROUND(col1) or ROUND(col1, scale)

Round a value to the number of decimal places as specified by scale to the right of the decimal point. If scale is negative then value is rounded to the right of the decimal point.

Numbers equidistant to the nearest value are rounded up (in the positive direction). If the number of decimal places is not provided it defaults to zero.

SIGN

SIGN(col1)

The sign of a numeric value as an INTEGER:

  • -1 if the argument is negative
  • 0 if the argument is zero
  • 1 if the argument is positive
  • null argument is null

SQRT

SQRT(col1)

The square root of a value.

Collections

ARRAYCONTAINS

ARRAYCONTAINS('[1, 2, 3]', 3)

Given JSON or AVRO array checks if a search value contains in it.

AS_ARRAY

AS_ARRAY(col1, col2)

Construct an array from a variable number of inputs.

AS_MAP

AS_MAP(keys, vals)

Construct a map from a list of keys and a list of values.

ELT

ELT(n INTEGER, args VARCHAR[])

Returns element n in the args list of strings, or NULL if n is less than 1 or greater than the number of arguments. This function is 1-indexed. ELT is the complement to FIELD.

FIELD

FIELD(str VARCHAR, args VARCHAR[])

Returns the 1-indexed position of str in args, or 0 if not found. If str is NULL, the return value is 0, because NULL is not considered to be equal to any value. FIELD is the complement to ELT.

SLICE

SLICE(col1, from, to)

Slices a list based on the supplied indices. The indices start at 1 and include both endpoints.

Strings

CONCAT

CONCAT(col1, '_hello')

Concatenate two strings.

EXTRACTJSONFIELD

EXTRACTJSONFIELD(message, '$.log.cloud')

Given a string column in JSON format, extract the field that matches. For example EXTRACTJSONFIELD is necessary in the following JSON:

{"foo": \"{\"bar\": \"quux\"}\"}

In cases where the column is really an object but declared as a STRING, you can use the STRUCT type, which is easier to work with. For example, STRUCT works in the following case:

{"foo": {"bar": "quux"}}.

IFNULL

IFNULL(col1, retval)

If the provided VARCHAR is NULL, return retval, otherwise, return the value. Only VARCHAR values are supported for the input. The return value must be a VARCHAR.

INITCAP

INITCAP(col1)

Capitalize the first letter in each word and convert all other letters to lowercase. Words are delimited by whitespace.

LCASE

LCASE(col1)

Convert a string to lowercase.

LEN

LEN(col1)

The length of a string.

MASK

MASK(col1, 'X', 'x', 'n', '-')

Convert a string to a masked or obfuscated version of itself. The optional arguments following the input string to be masked are the characters to be substituted for upper-case, lower-case, numeric, and other characters of the input, respectively.

If the mask characters are omitted then the default values, shown in the following example, are applied.

Set a given mask character to NULL to prevent any masking of that character type. For example: MASK("My Test $123") will return Xx-Xxxx--nnn, applying all default masks. MASK("My Test $123", '*', NULL, '1', NULL) will yield *y *est $111.

MASK_KEEP_LEFT

MASK_KEEP_LEFT(col1, numChars, 'X', 'x', 'n', '-')

Similar to the MASK function above, except that the first or left-most numChars characters will not be masked in any way. For example: MASK_KEEP_LEFT("My Test $123", 4) will return My Txxx--nnn.

MASK_KEEP_RIGHT

MASK_KEEP_RIGHT(col1, numChars, 'X', 'x', 'n', '-')

Similar to the MASK function above, except that the last or right-most numChars characters will not be masked in any way. For example:MASK_KEEP_RIGHT("My Test $123", 4) will return Xx-Xxxx-$123.

MASK_LEFT

MASK_LEFT(col1, numChars, 'X', 'x', 'n', '-')

Similar to the MASK function above, except that only the first or left-most numChars characters will have any masking applied to them. For example, MASK_LEFT("My Test $123", 4) will return Xx-Xest $123.

MASK_RIGHT

MASK_RIGHT(col1, numChars, 'X', 'x', 'n', '-')

Similar to the MASK function above, except that only the last or right-most numChars characters will have any masking applied to them. For example: MASK_RIGHT("My Test $123", 4) will return My Test -nnn.

REPLACE

REPLACE(col1, 'foo', 'bar')

Replace all instances of a substring in a string with a new string.

SPLIT

SPLIT(col1, delimiter)

Splits a string into an array of substrings based on a delimiter. If the delimiter is not found, then the original string is returned as the only element in the array. If the delimiter is empty, then all characters in the string are split. If either, string or delimiter, are NULL, then a NULL value is returned.

If the delimiter is found at the beginning or end of the string, or there are contiguous delimiters, then an empty space is added to the array.

SUBSTRING

SUBSTRING(col1, 2, 5) SUBSTRING(str, pos, [len]

Returns a substring of str that starts at pos (first character is at position 1) and has length len, or continues to the end of the string.

For example, SUBSTRING("stream", 1, 4) returns "stre".

TRIM

TRIM(col1)

Trim the spaces from the beginning and end of a string.

UCASE

UCASE(col1)

Convert a string to uppercase.

Date and Time

UNIX_DAT

UNIX_DATE()

Gets an integer representing days since epoch. The returned timestamp may differ depending on the local time of different ksqlDB Server instances.

UNIX_TIMESTAMP

UNIX_TIMESTAMP()

Gets the Unix timestamp in milliseconds, represented as a BIGINT. The returned timestamp may differ depending on the local time of different ksqlDB Server instances.

DATETOSTRING

DATETOSTRING(START_DATE, 'yyyy-MM-dd')

Converts an integer representation of a date into a string representing the date in the given format. Single quotes in the timestamp format can be escaped with two successive single quotes, '', for example: 'yyyy-MM-dd''T'''. The integer represents days since epoch matching the encoding used by Connect dates.

STRINGTODATE

STRINGTODATE(col1, 'yyyy-MM-dd')

Converts a string representation of a date in the given format into an integer representing days since epoch. Single quotes in the timestamp format can be escaped with two successive single quotes, '', for example: 'yyyy-MM-dd''T'''.

STRINGTOTIMESTAMP

STRINGTOTIMESTAMP(col1, 'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSS' [, TIMEZONE])

Converts a string value in the given format into the BIGINT value
that represents the millisecond timestamp. Single quotes in the timestamp format can be escaped with two successive single quotes, '', for example: 'yyyy-MM-dd''T''HH:mm:ssX'.

TIMEZONE is an optional parameter and it is a java.util.TimeZone ID format, for example: "UTC", "America/Los_Angeles", "PDT", "Europe/London". For more information on timestamp formats, see DateTimeFormatter.

TIMESTAMPTOSTRING

TIMESTAMPTOSTRING(ROWTIME, 'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss.SSS' [, TIMEZONE])

Converts a BIGINT millisecond timestamp value into the string representation of the timestamp in the given format. Single quotes in the timestamp format can be escaped with two successive single quotes, '', for example: 'yyyy-MM-dd''T''HH:mm:ssX'. TIMEZONE is an optional parameter and it is a java.util.TimeZone ID format, for example: "UTC", "America/Los_Angeles", "PDT", "Europe/London". For more information on timestamp formats, see DateTimeFormatter.

URL

URL_DECODE_PARAM

URL_DECODE_PARAM(col1)

Unescapes the URL-param-encoded_ value in col1. This is the inverse of URL_ENCODE_PARAM.

  • Input: 'url%20encoded
  • Output: url encoded

URL_ENCODE_PARAM

URL_ENCODE_PARAM(col1)

Escapes the value of col1 such that it can safely be used in URL query parameters. Note that this is not the same as encoding a value for use in the path portion of a URL.

  • Input: url encoded
  • Output: 'url%20encoded

URL_EXTRACT_FRAGMENT

URL_EXTRACT_FRAGMENT(url)

Extract the fragment portion of the specified value. Returns NULL if url is not a valid URL or if the fragment does not exist. Any encoded value will be decoded.

  • Input: http://test.com#frag,
  • Output: frag

  • Input: http://test.com#frag%20space,

  • Output: frag space

URL_EXTRACT_HOST

URL_EXTRACT_HOST(url)

Extract the host-name portion of the specified value. Returns NULL if the url is not a valid
URI according to RFC-2396.

  • Input: http://test.com:8080/path,
  • Output: test.com

URL_EXTRACT_PARAMETER

URL_EXTRACT_PARAMETER(url, parameter_name)

Extract the value of the requested parameter from the query-string of url. Returns NULL if the parameter is not present, has no value specified for it in the query-string, or url is not a valid URI. Encodes the param and decodes the output (see examples).

To get all of the parameter values from a URL as a single string, see URL_EXTRACT_QUERY.

  • Input: http://test.com?a%20b=c%20d, a b
  • Output: c d

  • Input: http://test.com?a=foo&b=bar, b

  • Output: bar

URL_EXTRACT_PATH

URL_EXTRACT_PATH(url)

Extracts the path from url. Returns NULL if url is not a valid URI but
returns an empty string if the path is empty.

  • Input: http://test.com/path/to#a
  • Output: path/to

URL_EXTRACT_PORT

URL_EXTRACT_PORT(url)

Extract the port number from url. Returns NULL if url is not a valid URI or does not contain an explicit port number.

  • Input: http://localhost:8080/path
  • Output: 8080

URL_EXTRACT_PROTOCOL

URL_EXTRACT_PROTOCOL(url)

Extract the protocol from url. Returns NULL if url is an invalid URI or has no protocol.

  • Input: http://test.com?a=foo&b=bar
  • Output: http

URL_EXTRACT_QUERY

URL_EXTRACT_QUERY(url)

Extract the decoded query-string portion of url. Returns NULL if no query-string is
present or url is not a valid URI.

  • Input: http://test.com?a=foo%20bar&b=baz
  • Output: a=foo bar&b=baz

Note

All ksqlDB URL functions assume URI syntax defined in RFC 39386. For more information on the structure of a URI, including definitions of the various components, see Section 3 of the RFC. For encoding/decoding, the application/x-www-form-urlencoded convention is followed.

Page last revised on: 2019-12-12


Last update: 2019-12-12